The Walt Disney logo is amongst the most famous designs of all time. The typeface is completely unique to any other typeface and appears to be hand drawn but it has a very finished and flawless look.
As a company that mainly produces movies and shows for children, their target audience typically does not have the ability to read. This leaves the interpretation of the words all to the expression in the typeface. For the majority of my childhood I believed that the logo read ‘Walp Disnep’. This was because of the swirls on the ‘t’ and the ‘y’. Even now if I was unfamiliar with the company the words might be difficult to read. The words in the logo are somewhat unimportant as the lettering has an aesthetic that just screams imagination and creativity. The overall feeling that Disney is attempting to express in their content is ‘magic’, ‘dazzling’, ‘fantasy’ -this is shown at the beginning of their movies when this logo is presented and white stars fall in the background and a wand waves. Seeing the logo alone this effect is produced also by the typeface in order to communicate that feeling to their audience members who cannot yet read. The style is comparative to the writing of a child with swirling letters that are not particularly uniform, and even appears to be slightly slanting downward towards the bottom right corner. The typeface is the largest part of the logo, even bigger than the castle that is shown in the background. The letters are all capital, except for the ‘I’ and the ‘y’, and arguably the ‘s’. The ‘w’ and the ‘d’ are much larger in comparison to the rest of the letters. The ‘d’ is placed in the centre of the page beneath the castle and is given the most personality and importance. It’s the largest letter on the page and appears as the most professionally drawn as it’s very well proportioned and brings a level of symmetry to the entire page. The ‘d’ is technically the most important letter on the page as it is the initial for ‘Disney’ and is often used on smaller scale designs unaccompanied by the rest of the letters. In a way the ‘d’ alone is the logo while the rest of the letters are there to frame it. Each letter is weighted somewhat the same. There are points with thinner lines to produce that ‘hand drawn’ effect, but the thickest points on each letter is the same. The spacing is used differently in ‘Walt’ and in ‘Disney’, each letter in ‘Walt’ are connected either by a joining line or by very slightly overlapping one another. Each of the letters in Disney are clearly spaced in order to evenly distribute the letters. With each letter having a unique personality to the others, the logo appears whimsical and expresses that ‘magic’ that Disney exudes while maintaining its professional characteristics with the evenly spaced letters and hierarchy of the lettering.
Uncle Sam is a fictional character who was created by James Montgomery Flagg during the first world war. The ‘I Want You’ posters were placed all over the United States and proved as a highly effective strategy in getting young men to enlist in the military. This poster was one of the most influential visuals of WWI and still probably one of the most famous visuals of all time. What makes the poster important is the technique used to interpellate the intended audience. The exact same technique had previously been used in Britain.
Though the posters appear to be similar, the connotations of the visuals are different. The Lord Kitchener poster appears a little less confrontational as he looks to be pointing to a distant crowd and is not making direct eye contact with the viewer of the poster. This makes the Kitchener poster a little less personally summoning. The absence of colour on Lord Kitchener also makes this poster a little less personal. The depiction of Kitchener looks as if it’s a photo from a newspaper; he doesn’t appear as a disciplinarian like Uncle Sam, he looks more noble and inspiring as if he’s asking you to work alongside him. The most important difference which will bring me to my main point is that Lord Kitchener is a real person and Uncle Sam is not. This is a huge difference because Kitchener was a real person of power who was to be respected. As Uncle Sam is a fictional character this opens up a lot of questions. Flagg had the freedom as the artist to create this character who was supposed to be the inspiration to every young man of America to join the war. Why did he not use an already existing person? Instead he decided to use an anonymous middle aged white man dressed in a foolishly patriotic uniform. There is no real or even pretend power bestowed upon Uncle Sam, he is not associated with the military in any way, his uniform suggests only association with America. The only power that Uncle Sam has is the power of the white male gaze. He is physically looking slightly downwards to the view of the spectator, putting him in a position of power or authority over them. His physical stance is also one of authority. The idea that this anonymous white male was a powerful enough icon for the U.S. military to use as their bait for recruiting shows the power that is bestowed upon white men in the United States. Uncle Sam is essentially an icon for ‘America’, he was seen as the authoritative figure of all of America -‘Join the war to fight for Uncle Sam and his well being’; this is the kind of underlying message that can be inferred from this image. The dynamics of the gaze of Uncle Sam against each viewer might be different depending on racial and sexual orientation, but in all cases, Uncle Sam is meant to be viewed as an authoritative figure which if published now would be very problematic -not saying it was not problematic at the time, but analyzing the image through a contemporary lens it’s certainly perceived problematic now.
For this assignment I’ve chosen ‘The Raven’, by Edgar Allan Poe, published in 1845. The Raven is a poem that was released alongside a series of poems -though it is a poem, it’s fairly lengthy, so here I have reimagined it as an independent release. The poem tells the story of a distraught man who is tormented by a raven at his window in the night; he realizes that the raven can speak and he begins to ask questions that have been troubling him.
My initial attraction to this poem comes from its original visuals which were done by Eduard Manet. Edgar Allan Poe had commissioned Manet to do a series of lithographs to accompany the poem, which were minimalist and mono print. These lithographs inspired my visuals and my chosen monochromatic aesthetic as well.
My design choices were both inspired by Manet’s visuals and informed by historical accuracy. I first scalped a Lino print and used that as a basic bottom layer, and then I filled in some details by hand, and digitalized the image in order to add the text. I don’t have access to lithography right now, but I was trying to recreate an image that somewhat resembled a lithograph as I imagined that for the cover of a book like this a lithograph would be very suitable. The reason that I’d used a monochromatic colour scheme is not only because I was inspired by Manet, but because historically, in 1845, it would not be likely to have a coloured lithograph -which was the visual aesthetic I was trying to recreate. We learned in the first portion of lecture number 3 that lithography with colour did not come to Europe until about 1855- 10 years after this poem was published. European artists had not yet come in contact with Japanese woodblock print which was the inspiration to print lithographs in colour. The lettering I’d chosen may not be exactly what I was searching for, though the font for ‘Edgar Allan Poe’ I’m a little more happy with. I was looking for a font that somewhat resembled the humanist lettering practiced in France and England in the late 1700’s. I thought that it would be likely to have something like this in a lithograph as it would have to be done by hand so the famous Didot lettering that may have been popular in France during the time of the French artist Eduard Manet may not have been an option for a book like this. I also find that the seriousness and bold quality to this type of lettering suits the poem, as well as the monochromatic minimalistic visual. It does not attempt to tell any more of the story than what is given in the poem, leaving it still to the imagination when reading.
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