More than words

From the late 1940s to the late 1960s, due to the shortage of rationing and resources, people paid attention to functions and economic signs, while the economic prosperity of North America shifted the balance of world power from Europe to the United States. Some political and economic changes have expanded the style products and messages for graphic designers to coordinate images of large organizations. The international typographical style becomes a simple and clear means of communicating abstract concepts, so that the text in complex entities plays an important role in the style and fax type. Avant-garde design shaped the Aesthetics of the international typographical style, but put to the service of functionalism graphic design becomes a problem solving practice.

McCall’s” these two works give a strong visual impact, both works are composed of three parts of characters, text and background, both of which are in strong contrast using black and red, they are both printed works. The layout of the two works is the same, with the characters in the middle, the movements, expressions and emotions of the characters can reflect the emotions that the whole work wants to bring to the viewer, and placing the text next to the characters can make the viewer take read emotionally. The strong contrast between the background and the theme can first attract the attention of the audience. Otto Storch’s designs for McCall’s, shown here in a two-page spread from 1959, brought typographic verve to the high-toned color and striking poses of the models. The sheer density of color printing, along with its inexpensive availability, changed the graphic designer’s art, as did the use of photographic means to arrange typographic elements, including those knocked out of solid fields. Storch’s simple shapes and saturated hues echo the work of geometric abstract painters of the 1950s, such as Barnett Newman, although the stylistic innovations of advertising and editorial design may have nothing to do with the aesthetic concerns of the anarchist painter. 

The overall design of the United States Department of Labor publication feels clean and simple.  It only uses black and white colors without any patterns. By increasing the center content and layout, it clearly expresses what it wants to express. John Massey’s cover design for this report applies the graphic standards that he devised for the U.S. Department of Labor. These specified typography, margins, and grid variations for every textual occasion. Here, contrasting weights of sans serif type are used for textual meaning and formal effect. Information is defined by Massey’s system, but the system also overwhelms specific issues of work hours, wages, and health and safety conditions by turning the entire design into a formal exercise. Reason and systematic logic rule the graphic approach, suggesting that they also govern the policies described in the publication. 

The systematic approach to technical graphic styles has been supported by changes in the designer’s technical means. Photography production methods became standard platforms for static and animated graphics in the 1960s and 1970s. Although many designers have been trained to type letters by hand, make thumbnails and sketches with pencils or ink, the sleek surface and practical appearance of international style formalism depend on the way the machinery is produced. Handcraft has become a quirky symbol, unpopular in the world of corporate integration and efficiency. In the photographs of type, image and layout, the symbol of individualism disappears. The professional concepts in graphic design are related to the ability to master technical production methods, not to the skills on the drawing board.

Work Cited

Graphic Design History

The Museum of Modern Art

More than words

From the late 1940s to the late 1960s, due to the shortage of rationing and resources, people paid attention to functions and economic signs, while the economic prosperity of North America shifted the balance of world power from Europe to the United States. Some political and economic changes have expanded the style products and messages for graphic designers to coordinate images of large organizations. The international typographical style becomes a simple and clear means of communicating abstract concepts, so that the text in complex entities plays an important role in the style and fax type. Avant-garde design shaped the Aesthetics of the international typographical style, but put to the service of functionalism graphic design becomes a problem solving practice.

McCall’s” these two works give a strong visual impact, both works are composed of three parts of characters, text and background, both of which are in strong contrast using black and red, they are both printed works. The layout of the two works is the same, with the characters in the middle, the movements, expressions and emotions of the characters can reflect the emotions that the whole work wants to bring to the viewer, and placing the text next to the characters can make the viewer take read emotionally. The strong contrast between the background and the theme can first attract the attention of the audience. Otto Storch’s designs for McCall’s, shown here in a two-page spread from 1959, brought typographic verve to the high-toned color and striking poses of the models. The sheer density of color printing, along with its inexpensive availability, changed the graphic designer’s art, as did the use of photographic means to arrange typographic elements, including those knocked out of solid fields. Storch’s simple shapes and saturated hues echo the work of geometric abstract painters of the 1950s, such as Barnett Newman, although the stylistic innovations of advertising and editorial design may have nothing to do with the aesthetic concerns of the anarchist painter. ( Graphic Design History 259 )

The overall design of the United States Department of Labor publication feels clean and simple.  It only uses black and white colors without any patterns. By increasing the center content and layout, it clearly expresses what it wants to express. John Massey’s cover design for this report applies the graphic standards that he devised for the U.S. Department of Labor. These specified typography, margins, and grid variations for every textual occasion. Here, contrasting weights of sans serif type are used for textual meaning and formal effect. Information is defined by Massey’s system, but the system also overwhelms specific issues of work hours, wages, and health and safety conditions by turning the entire design into a formal exercise. Reason and systematic logic rule the graphic approach, suggesting that they also govern the policies described in the publication. ( Graphic Design History 258 )

Technology Systematic approaches to graphic style were supported by changes in the technological means at a designer’s disposal. Photographic production methods became the standard platform for static and animated graphics in the 1960s and 1970s. Although many designers were trained to hand-letter type and make thumbnails and sketches with pencil or ink, the sleek surfaces and functional look of International style formalism depended on mechanical means of production. Handwork became a sign of eccentricity, unwelcome in the corporate world of conformity and efficiency. Marks of individualism vanished in the photographic production of type, images, and layouts. Th e notion of professionalism in graphic design was associated with a capacity to command technological means of production, rather than with skills at the drawing board.

Work Cited

Graphic Design History

The Museum of Modern Art

Decoding Graphic Design

Hoch

At the time of this pieces creation in 1919 and 1920, Germany was experiencing political chaos after losing WWI. There was a struggle between two political parties, as German society navigated its way out of the old Weimer Republic and into the left-wing Communist movement. Dada artists used photomontage to express messages of critique that censorship would not allow to be put into words, as stated by George Grosz. This Dada art destroys the traditional value of art and creates a new art to replace the old art. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent toward violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with the radical far-left. “Cut with the Kitchen Knife…” has a feeling of rapid progress portrayed through a mocking and satirical tone. ( The Museum of Modern Art, “Hannah Hoch: Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimer Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany.” ) Pieces of machine are exploding throughout the montage to symbolize booming industry and culture within an urban area. This booming progress is not displayed in a proud , exciting and dignified manner however, but rather in a circus-like environment. The mood is whimsical to the point of ridiculous, with theatrical expressions and dramatic body language mixed in with images of political figures serving as a critique of the political free-for -all between the old Weimer leaders and the new left-wing communist agenda.

The large head of Keiser Wilhelm II, who was blamed for leading Germany into the disastrous war. His mustache is replaced with two pairs of wrestling legs spouting from either side of his nose. Below Wilhelm is the head of General Hinderberg attached to the body of a belly dancer. And Hoch leaves a clue in the bottom-right corner of the piece, a map showing countries in Europe at this time where women were allowed to vote. This clue reminds the viewer of her interest in pointing out gender issues and inequality within the Dada art world, but also within society as a whole. She couples the heads of prominent male political figures with the bodies of female dancers and showgirls to emasculate them and strip them of their power. (detail)

Hannah Hoch was an outstanding female artist in the Dada movement in Germany after the First World War. She is also one of the most original and striking graphic talents of the Dada movement, Hannah Hoch introduced issues of gender and ethnicity into her collages. (Graphic design history pg.108) As introduced, her collage introduces the issue of gender. In this work, Hoch’s title for this piece illustrates her critique of the “bloated and heavy handed” nature of the male dominated Weimer republic and German military. She chooses to give specifications, such as kitchen knife and beer-belly, to make it clear that this piece is social commentary regarding gender issues in post-war Germany. ( Shearer West, The visual arts in Germany 1890-1937: Utopia and despair ) Hoch’s satiric edge combined with her uncanny eye to produce peculiar hybrid images. Women were major figures and active innovators in the twentieth-century avant-garde, particularly in Germany and Russia. Hoch’s work aggressively attacked stereotypes of women, as well as the distinctions between Western and non-Western cultures.

Work Cited

Shearer West, The visual arts in Germany 1890-1937: Utopia and despair.

The Museum of Modern Art, “Hannah Hoch: Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimer Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany.”

Graphic Design History.

The Wealth of Nations

    “Many books are claimed to be classics or seminal works: The Wealth of Nations is indisputably both. It is a broad-ranging exploration of commercial and economic first principles. In it Adam Smith laid the philosophical foundations for modern capitalism and the modern market economy.” Smith, Adam. “The Wealth of Nations.” BUSINESS: The Ultimate Resource, Jonathan Law, A&C Black, 3rd edition, 2011. Credo Reference, http://ocadu.idm.oclc.org/loginurl=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ultimatebusiness/the_wealth_of_nations/0institutionId=4079. Accessed 20 May 2020. First of all, the reason why I chose this book is that this book played a crucial role in the development of social economy and it changed the working mode of people at that time. “The division of labor occasions in every art a proportionable increase of the productive powers of labor. The separation of different trades and employments from one another seems to have taken place in consequence of this advantage. Men are much more likely to discover easier and readier methods of attaining any object when the whole attention of their minds is directed towards that single object than when it is dissipated among a great variety of things.”Smith, Adam. “The Wealth of Nations.” BUSINESS: The Ultimate Resource, Jonathan Law, A&C Black, 3rd edition, 2011. Credo Reference, http://ocadu.idm.oclc.org/loginurl=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ultimatebusiness/the_wealth_of_nations/0institutionId=4079. Accessed 20 May 2020. At that time, people still believed that accumulating gold and silver reserves was the key to a country’s prosperity. In “The Wealth of Nations” refuted this wrong concept. Smith believes that the prosperity of a country does not depend on the amount of gold and silver, but depends on the amount of labor produced in the country. When more products are produced, people’s lives will become richer, otherwise they will become poorer. The key to a country’s prosperity is to increase the country’s production capacity, not to accumulate gold and silver. Therefore, in order to improve the national production level, Smith advocates to use of division of labor for work.

    The cover I designed is divided into two parts, the first part is text, and the second part is illustration. In the text part, I enlarged the words wealth and nations so that readers can see the two main words at a glance. There is a sentence at the bottom of the cover—“The real and effectual discipline which is exercised over a workman is not that of his corporation, but that of his customers.”— This sentence is a sentence in “The Wealth of Nations,” I put it on the cover of the book to attract the interest of readers. The second part is mainly based on an illustration of workers working. It shows that all workers are doing different steps, this is the method that the author shows in the book that can improve production efficiency—division of labor. This illustration shows an age-old feeling by adopting colorless methods, and through the detailed description of the character’s clothing and buildings, it reflects the people’s dressing style and neoclassical architecture in that era. Through this illustration, the reader can have a general understanding of this book. The cover of the book can make the readers feel like they were in that era.

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