Third Eye

Third Eye is an innovative wearable technology for visually impaired peoples. It is a wearable that specific for people who are blind. Using ultrasonic waves to detect the obstacles and notifying the user through vibrations and buzzer sound. Third eye for people who are blind is an innovation which helps the blind people to navigate with speed and confidence by detecting the nearby obstacles using the help of ultrasonic waves and notify them with buzzer sound or vibration. They only need to wear this device as a band or cloth. 

– Buzzer: very close to an obstacle

– Led: nothing in front of you

– Vibration: getting close to an obstacle

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They are suffering a lot of hardship in their daily life. The affected ones have been using the traditional white cane for many years which although being effective, still has a lot of disadvantages. Another way is, having a pet animal such as a dog, but it is really expensive. So the aim of the project is to develop a cheap and more efficient way to help visually impaired to navigate with greater comfort, speed and confidence.

Strategy:

My goal for this project was to explore the different effects that you can create using simple vibrator motors. It’s straightforward to connect the small vibrator motors to wearable projects, and it is an excellent way to only notify the user without revealing information to other people.

Something that has always been on my mind is the warning systems that are available on cars. Especially when dealing with projects that are very visual base, I feel that vibration would be an excellent replacement using other senses to notify the users with warning signals.

Documentation:

Experiment 1:

We followed the instruction step by step and uploaded the “Blink” example code onto the Arduino micro board, examining performance of micro vibrate motor. We initially use one micro vibrate motor and placed the board on the table. We held our finger on top of it and feel the strength of the vibration. Since we were going to design some wearable using micro vibrate motor. We decided to place the motors on our skin instead. Experiment one was a little bit tricky. We cannot find the right pin for its connect. One of us used Arduino Uno and the rest of us used Arduino Micro. Though we used same example code but we need to use different pins for the connector. We spent some time to test the pins and make it work.

We also tried different frequency of the blink by changing the delay time of the code. I was wondering if we could change the strength of vibration which could be another signal of the wearable we designed. We then tried another example code, Fade example, on the Arduino. We notice this code changed the strength of vibration.

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(Circuit diagram for Arduino Uno)

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(Circuit diagram for Arduino Micro)

(Experiment 1 video)

Experiment 2:

For the second experience, we were supposed to test the three motor together. We made an array of motors. When the first experiment was successful, it was not difficult to add more motor. Use a different pin and then copy and paste the existing code. We recorded a small video, which is believed to be quite strong for human body. During this period, I consulted omid about a question about library. This example code shows all (117) modes of vibration in the library. If we want to use a specific effect in this library, we need to change the example code.

We ran through all the different vibration formats the library had. We want to explore different types of vibration for further wearable design as a mean of sending different messages.

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(Circuit diagram for Arduino Uno)

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(Serial monitor_Different effect)

(Experiment 2 video)

Third Eye:

Now a days there are so many instruments and smart devices for visually impaired peoples for navigation but most of them have certain problems for carrying and the major drawbacks is those need a lot of training to use. I noticed that hands work as blind people’s eyes.

They use their hands to perceive the world. In daily life, they often raise their hands and shake from side to side to see whether there is an obstacle in front of them. The design principle behind working stick is to extend the blind people’s arms. This device aims to work as blind people’ walking stick.

Part List:

  • Breadboard
  • Jumper wires
  • Arduino Micro
  • Vibrating Disk Motor
  • LED
  • Buzzer
  • Ultrasonic Sensor

Steps:

  1. Connect the +5V and GND of Arduino UNO to the breadboard.
  2. For LED: Connect the cathode (Shorter pin of LED) to ground and the Anode (longer pin of LED) with a 330 or 220 ohm resistor.
  3. Connect the second pin of resistor with pin 6 of the Arduino as shows in schematics.
  4. For Buzzer: Connect the Positive terminal with pin 8 of Arduino and negative terminal to GND.
  5. For Ultrasonic Sensor: Connect the VCC and GND . Connect the Trigger pin to pin 12 and Echo pin to pin 13 of Arduino.

img_8658

(Circuit diagram)

img_0787

(Wearable)

(Test video)

Insights:

  1. In experiment one, we cannot find the right pin for its connect. One of us used Arduino Uno and the rest of us used Arduino Micro. Though we used same example code but we need to use different pins for the connector. We spent some time to test the pins and make it work.
  2. We recorded a small video, which is believed to be quite strong for human body. During this period, I consulted omid about a question about library. This example code shows all (117) modes of vibration in the library. If we want to use a specific effect in this library, we need to change the example code.

Information sources:

https://www.hackster.io/onyx/ultrasonic-sensor-alarm-1ec0f3

(Ultrasonic Sensor Alarm)

Next Steps:

  1. Work on the fabrication
  2. Have two vibration motors

Ambient LED

  • Strategy:  

img_5407img_3574

Excessive use of eyes leads to a variety of eye problems, which not only affects our health, but also reduces our work efficiency. You need to take a few seconds blinking eyes or looking out of window in very 30 minutes using computer. I want to expand and contribute to a project I did this semester and make an ambient device for the body.

ComputerMate is a smart computer chair cushion that help you developing a healthy lifestyle. There is a push button (weight sensor) inside the cushion, so it can detect if user is sitting on the chair or not. All you need to do is to plug smart computer chair cushion in the power supply. A popup window will send you notifications and play relaxed music, eye, exercise video, or stretching exercise video every 30 minutes. If you close the window, computer send you another notification in (every) 5 minutes.

I’d like to add a new function to the seat cushion. The display light functions as a timer to remind users that they should take a break when using the computer for a long time without disturbing people. It use pre-attentive processing to display information. There is a circle of LED lights around the seat cushion. When the user sits on the seat cushion, the function is turned on:Every minute user sit on the cushion, one LED will light up, and so on. If someone is constantly sitting on a cushion for 30 minutes, all 30 LEDs around the seat cushion will be lit one by one. People can glance at the light when they are using the computer and sitting on the computer chair. Those LEDs are not only work as a timer telling you how long it will be before taking a break, but also work as reminder at a glance.

Conclusion:

  • Previous function:

A popup window will send you notifications and play relaxed music, eye, exercise video, or stretching exercise video every 30 minutes. (Arduino > p5)

  • New function (ambient device):

Every minute user sit on the cushion, one LED will light up, and so on. If someone is constantly sitting on a cushion for 30 minutes, all 30 leds around the seat cushion will be lit one by one. (Arduino)

Workshop #4 Worksheet

Use Pousman et al’s[1] design guidelines for ambient information systems to design an ambient device

1) Display information that is important but not critical.
One function this device has is telling you how long it will be before taking a break, which is an important but not critical information displaying by 30 LEDs.
2) Can move from the periphery to the focus of attention and back again.
3) Focus on the tangible; representations in the environment.
LED light display glanceable information. Human eyes is sensitive to light change. We can notice the change of color and brightness of light at a glance. Use light as representations in the environment is very common.
4) Provide subtle changes to reflect updates in information (should not be distracting)
This device provides constantly change to users to reflect constantly updates in real time. Every minute user sit on the cushion, one LED will light up, and so on. If someone is constantly sitting on a cushion for 30 minutes, all 30 leds around the seat cushion will be lit one by one.  
5) Aesthetically pleasing and environmentally appropriate.
LED lights enhance the user experience, many people often use LED lights to decorate the bedroom. The pattern and color of the light is aesthetically pleasing. The cushion is placed in computer chair in bedroom, so it is environmentally appropriate.

[1] Pousman, Z. and Stasko, J. 2006. A taxonomy of ambient information systems: four patterns of design. Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces. (2006), 67–74.

 

  • Documentation:

Material:

  • Adafruit Feather board
  • Addressable led stip

These LEDs have an IC built right into the LED. This allows a communication via a one-wire interface. This means that you can control lots of LEDs using just one digital pin of your Arduino.

  • Jumper wires
  • Usb charger
  • Usb cable

img_6248

(addressable led stip)

Step1: Circuit Diagram.

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(circuit diagram)

There are four pins on the addressable led stip. One for GND(ground), one for power(5v), one for data, and one for timer. Since there are many different type of addressable led strip out there. I took a while to figure out how to connect those pins to Arduino board.

Addressable led strip has two ends, so you can plug in jumper wires in either direction. You can connect those two ends to the Arduino board with jumper wires in a positive or negative direction. If you choose the wrong direction, it won’t work. The strip has arrows in the direction that you’re flowing through.

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(close look of arrows on addressable led strip)

The red wire connect to 5v, the yellow on connect to ground. The white one connect to digital pin and the black one also connect to ground.

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(close look of addressable led strip wires)

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(set up wiring)

Step2: code.

I was looking for the right library and example for addressable led stip. There are many of them online. See details in reference. I want to find on that can control the brightness and the color of each LED individually, which allows me to produce amazing and complex effects in a simple way.

  1. Installing the FastLED library!
  2. After installing the needed library, upload the following code to your Arduino board (this is an example sketch provided in the library examples folder). Go to File > Examples > FastLED > ColorPalette

Then i made few change of the example code and accomplish my goal. I changed the delay time to 1 minute, so for every one minute pass, one more led light up.

Test video:

For demonstration, I changed the delay time to 10 seconds, so for every one minute pass, one more led light up.

Step3: Fabrication.

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(make holders for LED strip)

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(stick pressure sensor on the back of cushion)

Test:

  • Insights:
  1. There are a lot of addressable led at creatron. Notice that what we can use is 5v addressable led strip. 9v and 12v are not for arduino.
  2. Voltage Feather board can provide is 3v. It is still working to this type of addressable led.
  3. Addressable led stip has two ends, so you can plug in jumper wires in either direction. You can connect those two ends to the Arduino board with jumper wires in a positive or negative direction. If you choose the wrong direction, it won’t work. The strip has arrows in the direction that you’re flowing through.
  4. There are four pins at each end of the strip. The red wire connect to 5v, the yellow on connect to ground. The white one connect to digital pin and the black one also connect to ground.
  • Information sources:

https://randomnerdtutorials.com/guide-for-ws2812b-addressable-rgb-led-strip-with-arduino/

  • Next Steps: How would you improve upon what you made?
  1. digital fabrication
  2. test the code with push button
  3. try different color and pattern

 

 

Harvard step test

What is Harvard step test?

“The Harvard step test is a type of cardiac stress test for detecting and diagnosing cardiovascular disease. It also is a good measurement of fitness and a person’s ability to recover after a strenuous exercise by checking the recovery rate. The more quickly the heart rate returns to resting, the better shape the person is in.” (wikipedia)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mekPTS_LVv4

The procedure of Harvard step test.

“The person who is taking the test steps up and down on a platform in a cycle of two seconds. The platform is at a height of about 50 cm or 20 inches(usually 16 inches for women). The rate of 30 steps per minute must be sustained for five minutes or until exhaustion. To ensure the right speed, a metronome is used. Exhaustion is the point at which the subject cannot maintain the stepping rate for 15 seconds. The subject immediately sits down on completion of the test, and the heartbeats are counted for 1 to 1.5, 2 to 2.5, and 3 to 3.5 minutes.”(wikipedia)

  • Strategy:  

The professional step testing process is very complicated, and people do not often do step testing, but the recovery of heart rate after exercise is a very important indicator to detect heart health. Although my equipment is not that professional, they can immediately check their physical recovery status when people go to the gym. On the one hand, people have an intuitive understanding of my heart health or physical changes, and they can make corresponding adjustments to the amount of exercise they do.

How does this device work?

The more quickly the heart rate returns to resting, the better shape the person is in, normally heat rate should return to normal within 1 minute after regular exercise.

Test your heat rate after exercise > Your heart rate is very high right after exercise and the red led light up > If your heart rate return to normal the blue led light up > buzzer works as a timer, if your heart rate return to normal within 1 minute you pass the exam.

 

Describe your concept. What sensor would you like to use? What will your device do? Is your design for ☐ Self-reflection or ☐ Self-expression?
How could your design follow the design recommendations?

  • 1)  Instead of representing numbers, represent through materials and aesthetic visuals.

Instead of representing user’s heart rate in number, I used different color of led light as an indicator for people to read. In general, red is a passionately color and blue is a clam color. I choose red and blue leds to send notification to people.

  • 2)  Instead of designing for affect-as-information, design for affect-as-interaction. Treat the biofeedback as a prompt for social interaction or personal self-reflection.
  • I assume it is a self-reflection device because it can immediately check their physical recovery status when people go to the gym. It is a device that reflect people’s health condition.  
  • 3)  Have enough ambiguity that the individual must interpret what the visualization means for themselves.
  • For this project, it can be improved by adding visualization part of this device.
  • 4)  When designing, constantly reflect on how you are making meaning for the individual through your designs. Could you be insinuating that something is negative, unhealthy, etc. ?
  • Since people cannot change the code for this device, they cannot change the heat rate number.
  • 5)  Reflect on the authority you are giving to the biofeedback device. How could you transfer this authority to the individual instead?
  • 6)  Instead of focusing on self improvement, and prescribing an ideal, how could you help individuals with their own personal motivations?
  • For further steps for this project, I want to create a webpage, which can read the number of your heart beat. So people can know their heartbeat in every single time.

Howell, N., Chuang, J., De Kosnik, A., Niemeyer, G., & Ryokai, K. (2018). Emotional Biosensing: Exploring Critical

Alternatives. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 2(CSCW), 69

  • Documentation:

Step1: test heat rate sensor.

I tested both the example code class provided. They all didn’t work at first. Since it is example code, the code is fine and I uploaded the code successfully. I checked the wire connection, port and Arduino board. They all good. After I asked for help, I realize I connect heartbeat sensor in a wrong way:

Most analog sensor with three wires, such as potentiometer, distant sensor. The wire on the sides connect to ground and power, and the one in the middle connect to analog pin. I did the same to heart sensor. I read the instruction on the bag and made it right.

(Left) Green –

(Middle) Yellow +

(Right) Red A0

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(Heat sensor)

I tested both code and open the serial monitor. Everything works as expected.

Step 2: circuit and wiring

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(Circuit Diagram without heartsenser)

I used fritzing to make this circuit diagram for leds and buzzer. It is very simple and clear with just two leds(one is red and one is blue). Since I cannot find blue led in fritzing, I used two red leds in the diagram. I also couldn’t find heat rate sensor, so I attach an circuit image below.

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(Circuit Diagram with Heart Sensor)

Step 3: write Arduino code

I just changed few lines of code of the example code. I used if condition statement and set up a delay time for buzzer.

Code for buzzer:

screen-shot-2019-02-06-at-11-25-07-pm

Code for leds:

screen-shot-2019-02-06-at-11-25-14-pm

Step3: testing in real life

I used it right after aerobic exercise. It worked very well.

The more quickly the heart rate returns to resting, the better shape the person is in, normally heat rate should return to normal within 1 minute after regular exercise.

Test your heat rate after exercise > Your heart rate is very high right after exercise and the red led light up > If your heart rate return to normal the blue led light up > buzzer works as a timer, if your heart rate return to normal within 1 minute you pass the exam.

I tested my heart rate after I went to gym.

  • Insights:
  1. When connecting Arduino board to Arduino IDE, the very first thing you should check is the port name and board name. If you connected to different board. Arduino IDE cannot detect your board and code cannot be uploaded. Both port and board are under Tool at the top of Arduino IDE.
  2. Most analog sensor with three wires, such as potentiometer, distant sensor. The wire on the sides connect to ground and power, and the one in the middle connect to analog pin. I did the same to heart sensor. I read the instruction on the bag and made it right.
  3. Be careful of the led legs. The pin nearest the flat edge will be the negative, cathode pin.

 

  • Information sources:

I added one buzzer into my code and circuit. The buzzer works as a timer.

https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-use-a-Buzzer-Arduino-Tutorial/

https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-use-a-Buzzer-Arduino-Tutorial/

 

  • Next Steps: How would you improve upon what you made?

For this project, it can be improved by adding visualization part of this device.

 

 

 

ComputerMate_Jingpo

ComputerMate

 

 

  • Strategy:

 

Excessive use of eyes leads to a variety of eye problems, which not only affects our health, but also reduces our work efficiency. You need to take a few seconds blinking eyes or looking out of window in very 30 minutes using computer. ComputerMate is a smart computer chair cushion that help you developing a healthy lifestyle. All you need to do is to plug smart computer chair cushion in the power supply. A popup window will send you notifications and play relaxed music, eye, exercise video, or stretching exercise video. If you just close the window, computer send you another notification in (every) 5 minutes.

screen-shot-2019-01-30-at-8-05-09-pm

Problem:

People nowadays are dependent on computers. However, the use of computers affects a human’s well-being. When we enjoy the infinite space given by computer and network, we pay the price of health unconsciously. Using computer more than three hours a day would have some impact our eyes, arms, shoulders, cervical spine, lumbar spine, skin, hair with varying degrees.

 

Worst Common Health Problems Caused by Computer Use:

 

  1. Muscle Problems
  2. Vision Problems
  3. Headache
  4. Stress
  5. Obesity
  6. Repetitive Stress Injury
  7. Radiation

 

Users:

People may know that computers are harmful to their health in so many ways, but when they are actually using computers (chatting with friends, working, playing games,or production), they will forget that they need half an hour to get up, walk, move their bodies and do some eye exercises.

 

Solution:

Smart computer chair cushion


Use the push button as the sensor. When the doctor recommends using the computer, look at the distance every 20 minutes; Stand up and stretch every 30 minutes. My idea is to replace Arduino micro board to have wireless wifi environment with feather. There are a lot of challenges for this project. See the chart below.

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(Design draft)

Challenge:

 

Challenge Solution
1 Wireless

Directly connected to power.

Feather board
2 Popup window

People don’t need to open url (a new window) to get the reminder.

?????
3 Audio

Example:

“stand up and stretch.”

“It time to do eye exercises.”

P5

Processing

 

4 Link to online resources

Guide people to watch eye exercises video, relaxed music, or fitness video

P5

Processing

5 Notification

If you just close the window, computer send you another notification in 5 minutes.

If condition code

 

  • Documentation:

Measure and record resistance of all materials with a multimeter.

We made our touch sensor in class:

It was very easy to make. We have tutorial link in class slide. It looks very simple, but my sensor wasn’t working at first, because two pads accidentally connect to each other.  The resistor works like a divider, that completely separate those two conductive thread on those two pads.

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(Touch sensor we made in class)

Our assignment is to find consistent data for each resistors by following the same procedure. Every material’s resistance was different. We ran 3 tests for each materials and fill out the form.

 

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(Material bag in class)

1: Connect material to the ohm meter.

2: Read the values on the ohm meter.

Pick out a random resistor and set the multimeter to the 20kΩ setting. Then hold the probes against the resistor legs with the same amount of pressure you when pressing a key on a keyboard.

The meter will read one of three things, 0.001, or the actual resistor value.

  • If the multimeter reads 1, it’s overloaded. We need to try a higher mode. There is no harm if this happen, it simply means the range knob needs to be adjusted.
  • If the multimeter reads 0.00 or nearly zero, then you need to lower the mode.

3: Count 30 seconds and read the values on the ohm meter again.

Measuring resistance of a device while it is physically installed in a circuit can be very tricky. The surrounding components on a circuit board can greatly affect the reading.

img_3797

(Measure and record resistance of all materials with a multimeter)

Measure and record sensor values of all materials with voltage divider circuit and Arduino.

img_5915

(Arduino)

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(Arduino example code)

I used the press sensor I made in class to test the example Arduino code. The code is very simple. I opened the serial monitor and see the change of pressure(the change of resistor).

Create a Body-Centric Sensor Design, focusing on sensor construction and sensor calibration.

Materials:

  1. Mouse pad x 2
  2. Electric conductive fabric
  3. Econyx pressure sensing fabric
  4. Glue gun

img_9508img_8213

(New press sensor I made for this project)

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(Place the sensor inside the seat cushion)

Code: https://github.com/jli115/computermate

  • Insights:
  1. At first, I don’t know how to read multimeter. The meter will read one of three things, 0.001, or the actual resistor value. If the multimeter reads 1, it’s overloaded. We need to try a higher mode. There is no harm if this happen, it simply means the range knob needs to be adjusted.If the multimeter reads 0.00 or nearly zero, then you need to lower the mode.
  2. The sensor I made in class was not working because two pads accidentally connect to each other.  The resistor works like a divider, that completely separate those two conductive thread on those two pads.
  3.  I don’t know how to choose right resistor for Arduino board. The slide has very specific and clear explanation.

Besides that, everything went smoothly.

  • Information sources: none

I don’t have any other additional source for this project.

  • Next Steps: I haven’t finished challenge 2 and 5 listed above.

 

Workshop Notes 1_Jingpo

  • Strategy

What I want to make is a smart sleeping wear that monitors people’s sleeping pattern and adjusts sleeping position.

img_3679

img_4843

1.Get the right sleeping position:

Good sleep posture is important to have a good sleep. In some cases, the wrong sleeping position can cause various parts of the body to be compressed to varying degrees, so when you get up in the morning, there will be a lot of uncomfortable places.

The right sleeping position is sleeping on your back. The advantage of sleeping on your back is that it doesn’t compress your organs.

The downside of lying is not the right sleeping position. Most of your body weight is concentrated in your ribs and stomach, which puts a lot of pressure on your chest and diaphragm. That can affect your breathing and increase the load on your heart.

Sleeping on the left side of the body, which is prone to turning over and over, produces a feeling of erratic sleep. Also, this kind of sleep can affect the heart, because our heart is on the left side of the body, so sleep can be stressful on the heart, so sleeping sideways on the left is a very unhealthy sleep position.

Right side sleeping is better than left side sleeping. It doesn’t press on our heart, and it has a great sense of stability during sleep. The downside is that it affects the right side of the lung.

  1. Design for specific users:
  1. Snoring:

People who snore or have respiratory problems are not advised to sleep on their backs. If you sleep on your back, you may be more predisposed to snoring. it may also lead to complete airway collapse called “sleep apnea”. Pauses in breathing, gasping or choking, and other symptoms such as daytime sleepiness may result. This occurs because gravity can more easily shift these tissues into the throat, blocking adequate airflow.

  1. Backbone:

People who have backbone problem like prolapse of intervertebral lumbar disc need to lie flat on their back and sleep on a hard bed.

  1. Heart disease, high blood pressure and cerebral thrombosis:

People suffering from heart disease, high blood pressure, cerebral thrombosis is not suitable for lying prone to sleep, we must pay attention to in life.

  1. Stomach disease and acute liver disease:
    Left side sleeping can press heart, stomach. It is not suit to left side slanting morpheus especially to the patient such as disease of the stomach, acute liver disease.

Conclusion:

To healthy person character, suggest to choose back lie with side lie alternately, but give priority to with back lie. For specific users, they need to have different position of sleep.

  • Documentation:

Two techniques I chose are weaving and knitting.

1: Circle weaving_Tilt sensor

Process:

img_8515img_8532-2

Finished push button:

img_2252

Test:

img_7588

2: Knitting_Push button

Process:

img_5691img_0952

Finished tilt sensor:

img_3178

Test:

img_5929

  • Insights:
  1. I understand how to make tilt sensor and push button, which are two every essential and useful sensors in my ongoing project.
  2. I didn’t really understand how tilt sensor work at the first time. I should have taken a moment slow down and think of how they work before started doing anything. The wires for those four conductive areas on the sensor are so close to each other, so I had to make a new one.
  3. How would I apply those knowledge: 

Tilt sensor:

Trigger alarm for wrong sleeping position(Left side/Right side)

Record sleeping pattern 

Push button:

Trigger alarm for wrong sleeping position(Downside) 

  • Information sources: None.
  • Next Steps:
  1. Search for similar products and learn from them;
  2. Fully test those two sensors;
  3. Upgrade the tilt sensor(conductive wires);
  4. Write Arduino code;
  5. Find alternative way(without Arduino)to record sleeping pattern if possible;
  6. Find sleeping wear;