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March 21, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Ten, Challenges

Ten, Challenges

1)      Steger says in chapter seven: “Religious fundamentalism usually begins as a response to what is often experienced as a materialistic assault by the liberal or secular world.” By ‘materialistic assault’, I believe Steger means (not openly imperialistic) pressure from the religion-separated Western world on non-western places. The ‘materialistic’ aspect is referencing the capitalist, market-globalist, consumption-riddled standards in which the Western world seems to operate within. What I think Steger is implying with that statement is religion is at odds with globalization because at the moment, globalization is economically-based with ethics not very well upheld and religion ignored.

2) The Battle of Seattle was a significant event because it united a huge number of people from all over to try to pressure the WTO because of its regulations (or lack of). It was equally important to note that the protesters used social-media and technology to recruit, rally and mobilize other protesters with a small budget and a better, faster result. The use of technology in the Battle of Seattle is mirrored in the web project because it is connected with Steger’s four principles: the condensation of time and space, the acceleration of exchange and the stretching and multiplication of social relations.

March 13, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Nine, ideologies

Nine, ideologies

I wouldn’t consider myself a globalist after reading the five essential claims of globalism. I disagree with most of the claims especially the third, fourth and fifth statements. The third statement, “Nobody is in charge of globalization” feels like a cop-out. The people in charge of or, those who work in the economy, dismiss the responsibility of the effects of globalization. The fourth claim: “Globalization benefits everyone” is the weakest argument of all, in my opinion, because it is so vague and untrue. The cliché phrase ‘the rich get richer, the poor get poorer’ fits perfectly with the information that Steger presents on the claim.  For example, the income ratio has actually risen, and in Canada, the “average income in (the 1% club) is $450,000, compared to only $36,000 for the whole Canadian population.” (1.)


Assuming Steger is correct in his statement that globalism is the most powerful ideology today; I would consider liberalism as the second most important ideology in our society for the past 150 years. Liberalism includes the ideas of individualism, freedom, equality, rationalism, progress and a free market. All these ideals are present in our society. The individual is put first, the importance of freedom of speech and freedom of religion is a now a right. Rational thinking overcame superstitions and progress is pushed, especially in industrialization. The ideals of progress and the free market in liberalism overlap in globalization.


1. The paper was jointly written by UBC’s Nicole Fortin, David Green, Thomas Lemieux, Kevin Milligan and Craig Riddell for the Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/economy-lab/who-are-the-richest-1-per-cent-in-canada-theyre-not-just-ceos/article4231232/

March 10, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Eight, environment

Eight, environment

In response to Arthur Lyon Dahl, Financial crisis and the green economy http://iefworld.org/ddahl09d.html & Globalization and the Environment http://iefworld.org/ddahl98b.htm


I don’t believe that the culture of sustainability was created by the success of economic globalization. I think that the sustainability movement is more closely related to public awareness. Economic globalization put pressure on many natural resources “helping to drive the rapid depletion of tropical forests, the collapse of many ocean fisheries, and even the global impoverishment of biological diversity.” (Dahl, Globalization and the Environment)

I do believe that sustainability is essentially a global issue and concept because we are all responsible for our impacts on the world. Pollution doesn’t respect national boundaries (as we can see with the smog in the GTA, for example). Issues with endangered species in the ocean and on land are also global problem. Also, sustainability should be, as Dahl implies, not only a governmental issue, but be an issue in every sector (example: the business sector).

But, I also strongly believe that some countries should take more responsibility than others. If a nation consumes a lot and produce more pollution than others, they should cut back more than other less demanding populations. For example, a poorer country, a smaller or a less densely populated country is not going to have the same impact on the environment as, for example the United-States, China or a European country.

I also think that global sustainability would be very difficult to achieve solely on a local level. As Dahl says, with such a dramatic difference between and in countries, it would be best to have countries working out individual issues in a framework.


Tegan and Sara’s song “Our Trees” because of the environmental theme 🙂


March 3, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Seven, cultural dimension

Seven, cultural dimension

1.  In the last 15 years, transnational companies have created a monopoly in the commercial media sector. TNCs such as Google, General Electric and AOL/Time/Warner have become ‘financial media giants’ that has steadily killed off smaller, independent media.  Much like how biodiversity is vital for the environment, visual diversity is important for a strong visual culture.

Given the circumstances, the role of the designer/artist today is to diversify. It may be to find an original style or new way to attract people’s attention. Or, perhaps, it is to make the public realise the circumstances of the current global oligopoly.

February 24, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Six


1)      Given the question: Are the major causes behind globalization mainly political or economic in origin, a hyperglobalist would fervently answer: economic. A hyperglobalist would insist that political power is being crushed by the overpowering supremacies of the economy and technology. Steger comments, however, that “economic forms of interdependence are set in motion by political decisions, but these decisions are nonetheless made in particular economic contexts.”(Steger 64) So, given the complex nature of economic and political connections, I would disagree with the hyperglobalist perspective.


2)      The United Nations, established in 1945, stretched political activities across borders and helped create new connections between nations. Those effects on the world increased global relations and aided in globalization. The World Trade Organization (WTO) also created new connections across borders, and, with the aid of new technology, helped expedite exchange across borders. Both organizations created new political and economic connections with different countries. Like Steger explains, it is very difficult to separate politics from economics, therefore it would be untrue to say that either an exclusively political or economic institution. While the United Nations deals mostly in political affairs, it also aims to help economic development. Similarly, the WTO describes themselves as “a rules-based, member-driven organization — all decisions are made by the member governments, and the rules are the outcome of negotiations among members” (http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/thewto_e.htm#decision_making) , indicating that politics is deeply rooted deep in economic decisions.


Steger introduced the concept of a future borderless world; something I feel could happen. This interesting short lecture by Pankaj Ghemawat called Actually, the world isn’t flat, on globalization examines our imagined globalization compared to the real numbers of global trends.  

February 10, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Five


1. In a militarist country, there is the potential for individual rights to suffer. As a creative person brought up in a democratic country, I believe that individual rights are very important and probably shouldn’t get overlooked for the sake of economic growth.

Martial law, as in Japan’s case, seems too extreme. It is supposed to be used to stabilize a crumbling civil government and to still civil unrest for a limited time. To me, that kind or rule seems negative for the growth of a society.

Still, I can see the appeal of such a trade-off for a secure economic climate. I can also see that a better, more secure economy serves everyone and is probably for the greater good. Job security, stable food prices and wages are vital to a healthy country. These things help lower unemployment rates and create a better quality of life for people.

If the military government was fair and uncorrupt, and there was more equality, I wouldn’t mind living under stricter ruling.


2. China created Special Economic Zones (SEZs) that had different policies than those in the rest of the country.  These zones were especially important because they gave foreign producers more freedom to produce and export goods. With the help of foreign investors, China experienced  an export boom.

China was able to ‘domesticate’ foreign investments by use of governmental policies that encouraged ties with domestic businesses.

“[…] the government used a variety of incentives and disincentives to foster joint ventures with domestic firms (as in mobile phones and computers) and expand local content (as in autos).”

China effectively ‘tamed’ globalization by making it work with and for their economy. 

February 3, 2013
by Evelyn Roitner
Comments Off on Four; economy

Four; economy

The laissez-faire term used in economics is the attitude of leaving the economy to take care of itself without government intervention. They consist of private businesses and corporations that are free from taxes and regulation.  Steger notes three developments related to globalization: the internationalization of trade and finance, the increasing power of transnational corporations and the enhanced role of international economic institutions. The first development shows that the wealthy countries are trying to create a lone global market. The second demonstrates the power of multinational corporations that is overshadowing the power of countries. Finally, the third development shows a new way of colonialism by using economic situations as pressure.

In Canada, there is a push for free-trade and eliminating tariffs on European trade.  “Deeper trade with the EU would mean good jobs, growth and long-term prosperity for hard-working Canadians.”  (Canadian government website http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/eu-ue/can-eu.aspx?view=d)


The birth of the internet and other technologies has significantly affected our concept of economics by changing the way trade is conducted. Trade can be instantaneous and world-wide with the internet. The positive effect of the technology is that it saves time and energy in economic transactions and also makes it possible to create and expand new markets. New markets mean more choice for consumers and new opportunities for businesses. Adversely, these lightning-fast technologies enable investors to bet on things that don’t exist yet and in turn create an element of risk in economies.

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