# ALIGNMENT

##### The Placement of elements such that edges line up along common rows or columns
• This creates a sense of unity and cohesion, which contributes to the designâ€™s overall aesthetic and perceived stability.
• Alignment can also be a powerful means of leading a person through a design.
• You can also align elements along diagonals, but the invisible aligning paths should be 30degrees or greater or else it will be too subtle and difficult to detect.
• Also in spiral or circular alignments it may be necessary to augment or highlight the paths so that the alignment is perceptible
• As with all elements there are exceptions, in the rare exception misalignment of elements may be allowed to attract attention or create tension.

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Too many different alignments, not balanced

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Grids maintain intricate alignments in order

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Breaking alignment works when done with a purpose

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# Common fate

##### Elements that move in the same direction are perceived to be more related than elements that move in different directions or are stationary

• If certain elements in the row move in one direction, and other elements move in the opposite direction, elements are grouped by their common motion and direction.
• Perceived relatedness is strongest when the motion of elements occurs at the same time and velocity, and in the same direction.
• a Gestalt principle of organization holding that aspects of perceptual field that move or function in a similar manner will be perceived as a unit
• Common fate relationships usually refer to moving elements, they are also observed with static objects that flicker.
• When moving elements within bounded regions, move the edges of the region in the same direction as the elements to achieve a figure relationship or in the opposite direction as the elements to achieve a ground relationship.

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# CLOSURE

##### A tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern, rather than multiple, individual elements.
• The tendency to perceive a single pattern is so strong that people will close gaps and fill in missing information to complete the pattern if necessary.
• Closure is the strongest when simple recognizable patterns are located near one another and the designer uses transitional elements to create a closure effect.
• The principle of closure allows designers to reduce complexity by using smaller number of elements to organize and communicate information.