Exercise #3 : Group Sight : Andrew / Angela / Christine / Felix / Rui


The Placement of elements such that edges line up along common rows or columns
  • This creates a sense of unity and cohesion, which contributes to the design’s overall aesthetic and perceived stability.
  • Alignment can also be a powerful means of leading a person through a design.
  • You can also align elements along diagonals, but the invisible aligning paths should be 30degrees or greater or else it will be too subtle and difficult to detect.
  • Also in spiral or circular alignments it may be necessary to augment or highlight the paths so that the alignment is perceptible
  • As with all elements there are exceptions, in the rare exception misalignment of elements may be allowed to attract attention or create tension.


Too many different alignments, not balanced



Grids maintain intricate alignments in order



Breaking alignment works when done with a purpose



Common fate

Elements that move in the same direction are perceived to be more related than elements that move in different directions or are stationary

  • If certain elements in the row move in one direction, and other elements move in the opposite direction, elements are grouped by their common motion and direction.
  • Perceived relatedness is strongest when the motion of elements occurs at the same time and velocity, and in the same direction.
  • a Gestalt principle of organization holding that aspects of perceptual field that move or function in a similar manner will be perceived as a unit
  • Common fate relationships usually refer to moving elements, they are also observed with static objects that flicker.
  • When moving elements within bounded regions, move the edges of the region in the same direction as the elements to achieve a figure relationship or in the opposite direction as the elements to achieve a ground relationship.



A tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern, rather than multiple, individual elements.
  • The tendency to perceive a single pattern is so strong that people will close gaps and fill in missing information to complete the pattern if necessary.
  • Closure is the strongest when simple recognizable patterns are located near one another and the designer uses transitional elements to create a closure effect.
  • The principle of closure allows designers to reduce complexity by using smaller number of elements to organize and communicate information.