If the Shoe Fits

A description of the project

For this project I decided to have a take on basic learning systems. Using the “you complete me” method, I designed a learning mechanism for children to putting the correct shoes on your feet.

When the right foot and the right shoe are properly placed, nothing happens – the wearer is free to run around as they would like

If shoes are placed on the wrong feet, the two conductive fabric pieces touch and the beeper goes off, signaling that the shoe is placed on the wrong foot.

A material & parts list. Be sure to include part numbers and supplier info.

1 pair of shoe

1 pair of socks

Conductive fabric

Conductive thread

2 – 3V Buzzer (one for each shoe)

2 – CR2032 battery

2 – CR2032 battery holder

An illustration of the circuit layout


Final Project

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* woah totally thought i turned this in after class 😐 *



The initial idea going into this project was to create a jacket that would match every mood/clothing that you have. The obvious answer to this is transparent clothing, but really, who is going to walk around (outside) naked… So I decided to bump the clear aesthetic up a notch by implementing an Adafruit colour sensor along with RGB LED Neopixels. The idea is to have the colour sensor pick up the colour of your clothing and illuminate the jacket to match your outfit. Simple enough eh

Visual documentation


Related projects & other research


look at it

appleclear rain coat

Parts & Materials list
2 yards clear vinyl
Sewing Thread
Adafruit Flora Mainboard
Adafruit Colour Sensor
Conductive Thread
4M LED RGB Neopixel Light Strips
Toggle On/Off switch
a good code

An explanation of the prototyping process.

I started wirking with the Flora mainboard and the color sensor. Instead of going ahead and buying the strip, I tested codes and circuits with a NeoPixel 8 pixel stick, just to get a feel of it. After working with it and finally figuring out how to use the proper code, I started making the coat. The first coat came out a bit too small, so I started making the second one. I finally got that done and measured out how many meters of Neopixel strip I would need… becuase it was so expensive I purchased the 3M and worked out a design that went nicely with my jacket, instead of lining ALL the seams with neopixels … I think it came out pretty good!

Circuit diagrams, code, design files, or other supporting material


#include <Wire.h>
#include “Adafruit_TCS34725.h”
#include <Adafruit_NeoPixel.h>

// Parameter 1 = number of pixels in strip
// Parameter 2 = pin number (most are valid)
// Parameter 3 = pixel type flags, add together as needed:
// NEO_RGB Pixels are wired for RGB bitstream
// NEO_GRB Pixels are wired for GRB bitstream
// NEO_KHZ400 400 KHz bitstream (e.g. FLORA pixels)
// NEO_KHZ800 800 KHz bitstream (e.g. High Density LED strip)
Adafruit_NeoPixel strip = Adafruit_NeoPixel(90, 6, NEO_GRB + NEO_KHZ800);

// our RGB -> eye-recognized gamma color
byte gammatable[256];

Adafruit_TCS34725 tcs = Adafruit_TCS34725(TCS34725_INTEGRATIONTIME_50MS, TCS34725_GAIN_4X);

void setup() {
Serial.println(“Color View Test!”);

strip.show(); // Initialize all pixels to ‘off’

if (tcs.begin()) {
Serial.println(“Found sensor”);
} else {
Serial.println(“No TCS34725 found … check your connections”);
while (1); // halt!

// thanks PhilB for this gamma table!
// it helps convert RGB colors to what humans see
for (int i=0; i<256; i++) {
float x = i;
x /= 255;
x = pow(x, 2.5);
x *= 255;

gammatable[i] = x;

for (int i=0; i<3; i++){ //this sequence flashes the first pixel three times as a countdown to the color reading.
strip.setPixelColor (0, strip.Color(188, 188, 188)); //white, but dimmer– 255 for all three values makes it blinding!
strip.setPixelColor (0, strip.Color(0, 0, 0));

uint16_t clear, red, green, blue;

tcs.setInterrupt(false); // turn on LED

delay(60); // takes 50ms to read

tcs.getRawData(&red, &green, &blue, &clear);

tcs.setInterrupt(true); // turn off LED

Serial.print(“C:\t”); Serial.print(clear);
Serial.print(“\tR:\t”); Serial.print(red);
Serial.print(“\tG:\t”); Serial.print(green);
Serial.print(“\tB:\t”); Serial.print(blue);

// Figure out some basic hex code for visualization
uint32_t sum = red;
sum += green;
sum += blue;
sum += clear;
float r, g, b;
r = red; r /= sum;
g = green; g /= sum;
b = blue; b /= sum;
r *= 256; g *= 256; b *= 256;
Serial.print((int)r, HEX); Serial.print((int)g, HEX); Serial.print((int)b, HEX);

Serial.print((int)r ); Serial.print(” “); Serial.print((int)g);Serial.print(” “); Serial.println((int)b );
colorWipe(strip.Color(gammatable[(int)r], gammatable[(int)g], gammatable[(int)b]), 0);

// Fill the dots one after the other with a color
void colorWipe(uint32_t c, uint8_t wait) {
for(uint16_t i=0; i<strip.numPixels(); i++) {
strip.setPixelColor(i, c);

void loop() {

//loop is empty because it only takes the color reading once on power up! Turn the scarf off and on again to change the color.




The biggest challenge was to find a pattern to make the jacket with. Since I had never sewn an actual piece of clothing before, it took a bit of work to find a nice rain coat pattern online (also on that was free). Eventually I stumbled upon a blog where the woman created a pattern from her own shirt.

Following her instructions, I made my first rain jacket that was way too tight – because I was using a very fitting shirt for the pattern, oops.

My second pattern was made following a winter shell that I owned, so that one fit.

I wanted the end result to be made of a frosted vinyl but I couldn’t find any so I made do with clear.

Also battery.

My greatest success was getting that damn code to work. That was a really good time for me. Also making a jacket that I could actually breathe in. That was important.

Next steps

Cleaning up how the Neopixel strip is stuck on the jacket

Finding a battery that will power all Neopixels,

adjusting the postition of the strip so the mainboard and the color sensor fit into the pocket.

Social Signal

For this project i wanted to explore the aspect of signalling the surrounding people. For everyday use I commute to OCAD so the public interaction is an unavoidable aspect of everyday life. I really want a can system that signals the people around me if i am interested in interacting with them or not.

So here i introduced the signal shirt. I wanted to wear this shirt in a public space, but since it is so cold here I decided to first experiment on a smaller scale on everyday shirt. This process can be incorporated with a jacket in winter so it can be used in both weathers.




Here i first experimented with circuit and circuit types that would be best for this shirt.


I tried to best use that circuit in a 3D format that can better work with the shirt.


Just to take extra precaution since crocheting is a long process i needed to make extra sure that the circuit was working just the way i wanted it to.


Here is the shirt that i intend to use. It is a knit shirt that makes the crocheting easy to to the shirt itself.


I cut the shirt into 2 pieces. so that i can crochet in the conductive thread inbetween the 2 pieces.


The bottom piece is further cut into. So here is where the circiut lights will be placed. The cutting is done to both front and back side so that if in future i want to take the lightings at the back of the shirt if i want the signals to be seen at the back.


I started the first line of crochet to the top part of the shirt.


Here I started to add the conductive thread to the crochet with a single line of crochet so that it reduces that length of the conductive thread.



Here is the full crochet done after the condcutive thread so now i can attach this part to the bottom part.

IMG_1202 I started to attach the 2 parts together now.



Here the crochet got alittle jumbled together. So I had to redo it to make the fabric more aligned to the crocheting.


Here is what the piece looks like when the 2 pieces are attached.


The conductive thread, while crocheting I had parts left out so that I can add the other circuit parts later onwards.


I had to crochet it on top of the allready crocheted part.


Now i started to fill in the bottom parts where the circuits parts will be placed. It starts of like before, first row is the crochet line followed by the conductive thread and then the simple crochet, followed by the condctive thread again and lastly the simple crochet to attach to the other end of the fabric.


I started to experiement with the magnets for the necklase switch that completes the circuit. Here I used the magnetic tape.


To test the magnetic strength I used a 25 cents coin.


Here the other magnet was the coin magnet that did not have the strength to hold the coin.


So using the magnetic tape I cut out a smaller coin to attach to the coin, which has an adhesive side.


Now addeing copper tape to the coin to make it all condcutive. Back view


Front View.


Magnetic tape attcahed to the coin.


Back to the crocheting.


Here is the view of the Finished frontal part.


The condcutive thread that are hanging are goin to be used to attach the parts to the crochet.


The back view of the crochet part is plain but has potential to be used later on if I want to experiment with it.


On the othee hand my old shirt has lots of holes at the bottom part.




Just to make the shirt more pleasing to look at I filled in thw holes with crochet as well. So now i can wear this shirt in public.


Before stiching in the lights and battery I wanted to test that the lights worked.


Unfortunetly the ciruit would not work with the top part but the bottom part light would work.

The problem was the amount of conductive thread that i used that went around the shirt. That created alot of resistance. So here I am taking all the condcutive thread out from the top belt. I ended up taking 9feet of extra condcutive thread out.


The left over condcutive thread is used crocheting it ontop of the crochet which uses up less conductive  thread.

But now both light turn on.


So I had to rewire the condcutive thread. I ended up separating the 2 light circuits and reconnecting them to the on both side of teh battery.


Now the lights only light up when the condcutive thread of each circuit is connected.


Here is a close up view of rewiring the circuit, all the crochet connections are on the outside.






As for the Adding the switch it is placed in the necklace that i attached to the top of teh shirt acting like a necklace.


The magnetic tape on the shirt had to be replaced from a circle to a rectangle since it was muc stronger and could hold the necklace in place.

The Coin that acts like the switch was not working even after several tries of raising the copper tape and stiching in more conductive thread. Lastly I had to rip the condcutive thread so it created a rough texture surface that  can connect to the coin to complete circuit.






The magnet i strong and holds the necklace.


Here is a video that shows the social shirt in action.

This video shows when the red light in ON the people around will not approach you.


There is another video, “Positive” where when the green light in ON the peopel around me invite me to go to the mall with them. But unfortunetly the video was too long and I could not upload it onto this page.


This shirt was a success but more improvemnets could be made, like diffusing the lights, having the lights at the back as well and applying the same process to a coat.


Conductive Thread (FLORT-000603)

LED Green and Red 3mm (LEDTU-399100)  – 2 pieces

CR2032 Coin Battery Holder – (LILYB-008822)

CR2320 Lithium Cells – (BATTG-232000)

Small Alligator wires – (INSTR-000061)






Bike Signaller – Nich Pereira


For the final project I chose to focus on biking. Signalling is a vital part of biking and should be done every time before you turn. The problem with signalling at the moment is that not everyone on the road is able to see you signal and biking with one hand makes you unstable and can be dangerous. The idea of the Signalling Sleeve is that it is a gesture recognizing sleeve that communicates with your bike to generates the appropriate light signal that everyone on the road can see.




lilypad XBEE


XBEE x 2

Lipo battery

Lipo battery connector





IMG_0210 IMG_0211 IMG_0212

Pop Your Collar

Pop your collar




I wanted to make a sheepskin vest to carry me through the cold months of winter. I wanted to incorporate LED’s and a light sensor run by an Arduino Lilypad. I had hoped to make this project to be as waterproofed as possible and therefore played with the idea of using resin to coat my LED’s and other components. I wanted to place the light sensor indiscreetly on the back of the neck so that the collar could cover it in order to turn the LED’s off. When the wearer flips the collar up however the lights within the buttons on the shoulders would automatically light up. This would let the wearer control the electronics with a slight flip of their collar.


Visual Documentation

Some of my first steps were to draft a pattern for my vest and make my LED’s suspended in resin. I went to the plastics shop and created a silicone mould using wooden buttons that I formed in the metal shop. when the silicone was cast I began experimenting with different types of LED’s


The first LED’s I tried to use were tiny super brights, but after a few experiments with them I switched to Lily LED’s since they are flat and fit into the resin a little easier.


The first batch of buttons did not work out well. not only were the LED’s positioned badly but I had experimented with opaque resin to hide the electronics and it did not turn out well. my second batch also failed miserably but the third batch worked out well. I mixed some colours and used the slightest touch of opaque medium. The type of resin I used is polyester. I found out the hard way that this type of resin is quite brittle. I wanted to make the aesthetic of the vest cohesive so I used rivets to attach the buttons to the shoulders. unfortunately one cracked. I used copper tape around the seam to hold it together and I actually liked how it looked. Lesson Learned: polyester resin should never be riveted.


I made a few different patterns for the vest before settling on the form that I chose. This is one of my earlier drafts. I ended up not liking the design lines and made two more muslins (rough drafts) before doing my good copy.


When my pattern and LED’s were finally ready I began trying to figure out how everything would go together. I used Fritzing to make my scheme and figure out my connections.



I then used alligator clips to make sure everything would work before soldering. 20141209_184806_resized20141209_184825_resized


When I was sure of my circuit I began to lay all of the pieces out on the back of the vest until I found a setup I was comfortable with. One of the more difficult parts  to incorporate was the light sensor. I wanted to hide it without reducing its ability to sense light. I ended up using a very thin piece of leather with a hole stamped out to disguise the sensor.


The finished piece

20141211_102447 20141211_102458 20141211_102512 20141211_102535 copper wires sewn into the leather with the light sensor just chillin.

20141211_102543 he glows!

Related projects

I wanted to work off of the research I had done for Bekaert wires. I finally received my larger samples of the wire and so I wanted to incorporate them into this project in order to explore their sewability and how well they take solder. I learned a little more about how to use these coated wires. I realized that while it looks good to stitch with spaces (image) it does not really work well to sew with them through thin leather in doubles as their stiffness competes with the material. I also found that while soldering is possible it is quite difficult. Because there are so many threads and they are a bit springy it can be hard to solder multiple wires to the same pin.


Notes on wearability:

I have been receiving so many compliments on the use of materials and the incorporation of the copper threads. The one thing that I will need to address is the uncovered arduino on the inside. It scratches your neck after a while and needs a layer to insulate it. It is however, incredibly soft and warm. I will probably wear this all of the time.



My challenges included trying to make my soldered LED’s sit still long enough to set in the right directions. I spent an entire day taping and holding wires as they set. In the future I would have made a better Jig to help keep them in the right position since it was such a hassle. The resin also seemed to dull my lights quite a bit.


Parts and materials list


Two full sheepskins

Hemp thread

Bekaert copper thread: CA 63/4×7/60S/0.493/PFA

4 lilypad LED’s with resistors

Arduino Lilypad

Arduino Light Sensor

3.7v recharchable battery and 5v booster


Light sensor code:


Make: Wearable Electronics

Analog input example


//initialize variable for light sensor reading

int lightSensorValue = 0;

//initialize variable for light sensor pin

int LightSensorPin = A2

void setup () {

//initialize serial communication at 9600 bps



void loop() {

// read pin and store value in a variable:

lightSensorValue = analogRead(A2);

// print the light sensor value:

Serial.println (lightSensorValue);

// delay between readings:


int led = 12;

if (lightSensorValue > 30)


digitalWrite (12, LOW); //turn LED off

} else { //otherwise

digitalWrite (12, HIGH); //turn LED on




Next steps

I would like to keep working with this copper thread as I find it suits my aesthetic really well. I would also like to try casting LED’s again in different materials and with different types of light to see what the result would be. I need to also move the light sensor to a place that is more accessible.

Heat Cuff


Heat cuffs are a concept for a heating source which doubles as a fashionable accessory. Since winter is here, many of us are stranded in cold, either while waiting for buses or while walking. My idea was inspired by the moment when you clutch on your coffee mugs to absorb the their warmth.

The cuffs will be heated by heating pads and can be worn on either your legs or arms. a button will be present that will activate the heating pads. The outer layer of the cuffs will be made of leather, to give it a luxurious look.


Visual documentation (photos and video) of the completed project






Final product in use

10836174_10155042851585647_1104560134_n 10850648_10155042851815647_1960300207_n




Related projects & other research

Heating cuffs are available in the market for purchase but instead of using a heating pad, they are activated by wind or just by opening up. The down side to those is the time limit, most only for 8 hours and need to be disposed. Constant purchase is required, and they don’t really look very fashionable.



Parts & Materials list

Pleather – King textiles

Buttons – King textiles

Heat Pad 5v – Creatron

4 Duracell Alkaline Batteries – 1.5v each


Prototyping process

The process of picking the right fabric was very crucial for this project. I experimented with different fabrics to see which one heat fast and which fabric is best to keep the heat insulated and still warm the wrist.

Cotton was very light and flimsy, but the heating was good. I also wanted to keep the aesthetic quite neutral yet everyday wearable so i decided to go with pleather. Not looks sharp, thin enough to radiate heat through and also very sturdy to sew on.

Wearing my Prototype was quite comfortable despite the huge battery pack. It kept a very constant warmth and I was able to go glove less while on my phone and now have my hand completely frozen. I defiantly think its a very useful product which I can see myself using everyday, for warmth and for fashion.


Circuit diagrams, code, design files, or other supporting material

10850355_10155053405140647_1206314259_n 10850752_10155053405195647_1048286226_n


The biggest challenge was finding the right battery and not to have it super bulky. I tried out several kinds of battery but they were either not strong enough or they would die really fast. After consulting with a employees at active surplus, I was recommended to use Alkaline batteries from duracell.



I found the design quite neutral which helps so you can wear the cuff with any outfit and it would match. Also I was glad that despite the battery situation the product worked well and delivered its objective.


Next steps

My next step would be to first find a smaller more compact battery and create anther cuff which would run on the same battery. Second step would be install either a button or sensor which was turn the heating pad on and off.

Heated Vest

Heated Vest

Process Photos

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