Blog Post 5 – Documentation of Final Prototype

Blog Post 5 – Documentation of Final Prototype

After receiving some final feedback in class, I considered how to integrate the device into a piece of clothing or footwear.

I liked the idea of a device that could eventually be interchangeable and perhaps be moved from one location, such as a pant pocket, to a purse, to a sock and so forth. It was brought to my attention that instead of moving the devices around, there could be various devices for different types of movement tracking. These devices could be worn separately or together. If worn together, they could perhaps speak to one another and build a better picture of how an individual is moving in real-time.

Ultimately, ant individual device would be able to speak to a larger and stationary device in the home, since my main interest is the movement of the individual in their own home environment.

The device was ultimately integrated into a shoe. This was done because of the type of movement I was looking at tracking, that of a person walking and how this changed over time. Since the foot directs the movement of the leg, it made sense to attache the device to footwear of this area of the body. The feet and legs of an individual with Parkinson’s often experience tremors and dystonia, where the toes curl under and become rigid, altering the ability of the individual to move with ease. While experiencing tremors or dystonia, an individual would have a decrease in balance, shuffled steps and the inability to turn left or right. Since the arduino board was so large and cumbersome, I worked on attaching it to a shoe in order to test it’s actual abilities.

img_20170804_143910

I laced the arduino onto my shoe in hopes of being able to actually track the motions and visualize them in real-time through the visualization on my laptop.

img_20170804_143859

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The visualization is capable of picking up the movements, even those which are subtle and slight. This can be seen in the video below.

In the video, I make a variety of movements while wearing the device, turning my foot to the left and to the right, swinging it upwards, and making an average motion of a foot.

Final Project Documentation

Final Project Documentation

1. Research Question:

How can technology and home-use design solutions be utilized in order to improve the quality of life of people living with Parkinson’s disease, thereby giving patients a better understanding of the everyday changes occurring with regards to their symptoms and bodies, while further providing physicians with live, up to date, quantitative data that can better inform the healthcare needs of the patient.

The What, Why, How & So What:

The What

  • a wearable device, using IMU (inertial measurement unit) sensors (MPU 6050)
  • worn on or within the shoe in order to track the movement of the feet and legs of a patient with Parkinson’s disease
  • the movement of the foot is tracked by the MPU 6050 and can be tracked through a graph or visualization
  • when a change in movement occurs, haptic feedback in the form of a subtle vibration would inform the wearer of a change in health

The Why

  • Negotiating a degenerative disease is exhausting – constantly trying to keep track of changes in mind and body can be overwhelming
  • The market is oversaturated with complicated apps or wearables
  • Removing the need for an extra habit or an increase in interaction with a device – this device would require almost no extra interaction on the part of the wearer
  • patient’s with PD often experience tremors and dystonia (muscle rigidity) in their legs and feet – these changes could be tracked through loss of balance, tremors (shakiness), shuffled feet and the inability to turn left or right
  • the shoe is continuously worn by a patient with PD as it takes roughly 20 minutes to remove one pair of lace up sneakers. This means the patient would continue to wear the shoes in their own home, only removing them in order to go to sleep
  • the shoe also offers infrastructure within which the device can be enclosed and contained

The How

  • The device would be concealed, to avoid drawing any further attention to the wearer.
  • The device would also take advantage of the discreet interactions – imbed sensors in small items
  • The haptic feedback would be discreet and subtle to avoid overwhelming the wearer of the device – it would provide immediate notification of a change in symptoms
  • Alternatively, a data visualization could be viewed for an immediate understanding of changes in symptoms

The So What

  • The device would aid with improving disease management of a patient as well as their autonomy and understanding of symptoms during everyday life
  • An everyday objects can create and improved understanding of the disease or any change in symptoms
  • This device would work towards normalizing disease in the mainstream
  • Designing for the outliers is designing for everyone
  • If patients have an increased understanding of their health changes as they happen, this could contribute to a decrease in health care costs, as PD is currently the third highest cost annually to the health care system

2. Review of three related digital products:

Product 1: “The Emma Watch”

emma_watch

The What:

Emma Lawton was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease at the age of 29. Shortly after receiving the diagnosis she began to experience tremors which prevented her from writing or drawing clearly, something she relies on daily as a graphic designer. The “Emma Watch” was developed by Microsoft to ease her tremors while writing and drawing.

The Why:

One of the many symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease is related to tremors. Tremors are the cause of uncontrollable movements and shaking and affect the ability of a person to perform daily tasks such as writing, typing, dressing or cooking. For Emma specifically, she has been unable to print her name or draw a straight line since being diagnosed. The “Emma Watch” enables her to use drawing tools as she once did, with full autonomy, pride and enjoyment.

The How:

The “Emma Watch” uses small motors that create vibrations in the form of a pattern on the wrist of the user. These vibrations then cause a disruption between the hand and the brain, allowing for the writing hand to move with added ease as the marking instrument moves across the page.

The So What:

Not only does the watch have the ability to ensure the wearer can draw and print more clearly, but the wearer has an increased sense of autonomy and empowerment. The watch creates an immediate change to symptoms and allows the user increased movement and ability. The technology embedded within the watch is further capable managing other symptoms that impact daily life and are related to Parkinson’s disease. This could be capable through the sensors and software within the watch that could monitor users for increased muscle rigidity or tremors in other areas of the body, such as legs.

References:

 Jones, B. (2017, May 10). Microsoft Shows Wearables that Assist Graphic Designer with Parkinson’s Disease. Digital Trends. Retrieved from: https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/microsoft-research-parkinsons-disease-emma/

McGoogan, C. (2017, May 11).  Microsoft built a watch that calmed woman’s Parkinson’s tremors. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/05/11/microsoft-built-watch-calmed-womans-parkinsons-tremors/

Ohene, A. (2017, June 14). ‘Project Emma’ tremor-reducing watch unveiled by Microsoft CEO. Parkinson’s Life. Retrieved from: http://parkinsonslife.eu/emma-lawton-haiyan-zhang-tremor-reducing-watch-unveiled-microsoft-ceo/

Product 2: “The LiftWare Spoon”

lift-spoon liftware560

The What:

The LiftWare spoon is an assistive device created as a response to limited mobility and hand tremors in people living with neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy and Huntington’s disease. The device allows the user’s hand to steady and remain level while eating.

The Why:

People living with neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, often struggle to feed themselves due to the shaking from a tremor, a common symptom of the disease. Not only does this cause difficulty and frustration when the user is attempting to eat, but it causes a decrease in confidence and the inability of the user to be autonomous as they will rely on the support of a care giver or family member in order to be fed.

The How:  

LiftWare has developed a device that detects and tracks the tremors of the user and counteracts the movements. The device works by using sensors, motors and an onboard computer that are built into the handle and uses technology similar to image stabilization features within cameras. Using two built in motors, the handle stabilizes the utensil attachment by directing it in the opposite direction of the tremor and counteracting the movement. An algorithm then senses the motion and determines whether or not the motion was intentional or unintentional. If the algorithm determines that the movement was unintentional, the device will move in the opposite direction. This allows the user to eat foods they normally would not be able to enjoy, such as soups or cereals, without spilling.

The So What:

The LiftWare spoon can increase the autonomy of the user and change their self-perception. For a neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson’s disease, mental health and well-being directly impact the rate at which the disease progresses. Making small improvements in the life of an individual living with such a disease can add to an improved quality of life overtime.

In looking at tools such as cutlery, which have seen little change in design and function over the decades, this product could challenge designers to re-examine the needs of the user. Instead of designing for the average individual, the success of this design demonstrates that the needs of users are not atypical and designing for the outliers can prove beneficial.

References:

Rosen, R. J. (2013, September 25). A Spoon for People with Parkinson’s. The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/a-spoon-for-people-with-parkinsons/279984/

Product 3: A Somaesthetic Display for Embodied Reflection

lee-jones

The What:

The somaesthetic display uses body data and investigates the notions of self-tracking and self-improvement in order to question how design interaction can encourage the user to reflect upon a personal and embodied experience.

The Why:

This work reflects upon gamification techniques, which have previously encouraged users to achieve health and fitness goals. While they have seen success, the author questions the ability to trust the data from such devices. Instead the author questions how personal data can be trusted and how it can facilitate behavioural changes, build new and healthy habits and improve the self. In using water to visualize an increase or decrease in heart rate, the work reflects on how the user is feeling and encourages reflection of the experience. It further demonstrates that a visualization can be used to encourage self-reflection on the state of one’s body, instead of relying on complex medical data.

The How:

The somaesthetic display way created using an interactive display, wireless input of the user’s heart rate biofeedback and computer vision that generated a visualization of the heart rate as water. As the heart rate of the user increased, the water on the screen would become turbulent but as the heart rate decreased, the waters would settle and become still and calm.

The So What:

The work encourages the user to question what kind of data they are using and why it is considered trustworthy. The user is also encouraged to question why technology is often considered a solution for solving a medical or health related problem. In creating a space where the user can begin to ask these question, they have the ability to consider how well they know their body. Instead of looking to qualitative data, the user can examine how they feel overall.

Additionally, interpreting medical data is generally associated with a specific skill set and a higher level of medical expertise. The ability of the user to interpret their own medical data is often not possible or can be considered overwhelming for many users of medical devices and tools. If the user feels overwhelmed, the device will become obsolete and can cause further alienation or difficulty for the user. The somaesthetic display considers how to move away from the use of colour to display heart rate in order to visualize data in a way that encourages self and bodily reflection as well as full comprehension of the data set.

References:

Jones, L. (2016). Your Body of Water: A Somaesthetic Display for Embodied Reflection (Master’s thesis, OCAD University, Toronto, Canada). Retrieved from http://openresearch.ocadu.ca/id/eprint/698/1/Jones_Lee_2016_MDes_DF_Thesis.pdf

3. Image documentation – Prototype Process:

In order to start working on the prototype, I first looked into laying out what I was interested in exploring and how I could potentially do so.

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This first attempt at paper prototyping aimed to contextualize the ‘why’ aspect of the process – why this work and research is important and why a prototype is necessary to create the first place.

img_20170627_133705

 

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In this work, the ‘why’ is concerned with the time between patient visits with clinicians. There is a need for increased knowledge sharing between a specialist and their patient in order to give the highest level of care possible. By sharing knowledge and ensuring that a patient has a full understanding of their own health, the patient will be empowered to continuously keep track of and understand the changes in their prognosis. This will lead to an increase in patient autonomy and ensure that a patient does not need to wait upwards of six months in order to comprehend what is occurring within their own body or mind.

Stakeholders

After determining our ‘why’, we looked at who the stakeholders are within our own work.  Who is our core audience or who are the people involved in the process?

For my work, the people I determined to be involved in the process are:

  1. The patient
  2. The health care provider (physician, specialist)
  3. Family members or primary care givers in the home

In order to better understand the roles that each stakeholder plays, I began to question their needs, the information they would need to be asked and why.

In terms of level of importance, I believe it is valuable to know how each stakeholder collects and relays pertinent information to a third party. What are their means of collecting data and what forms of data are most easily understood by each group.

In looking at the patient and the primary care givers/family members, I believe it is important to understand what a day if the life of a patient looks like. This will help inform which space in the home are frequented most often and which items or objects within those spaces hold the most value or importance.

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I then worked on building a journey map of the various touch points in the home of a patient – based on doing, thinking and feeling. This journey map was purely from the perspective of the patient in their home space, not taking into consideration any other stakeholders. The purpose of investigating the individual user was based on my own case study participant, who lives alone and is unable to rely on outside support from family or friends.

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I then started by sketching out how I imagined a patient moving through their home and the various spaces and touch points on the journey. This was done in order to gain a well rounded and more informed understanding of such a complex experience.

As I first began to sketch out the experience I evaluated the four considerations from the Prototyping Best Practices reading:

  • people – the person in question is the patient with Parkinson’s disease.
  • objects – what objects in a home would be touched or used most frequently. How would this change over time?
  • locations – the environment in question is the home space. Within the home space there are multiple locations, each with a very specific set of needs and uses.
  • interactions – What are the typical and a-typical interactions with objects and environments that could occur and how would these interactions change over time as a disease progressed?

img_20170629_153413

I started by drawing out how I would imagine a patient entering into their home and moving through the space. I later incorporated post-its because I realized that no interaction would be fixed and I would potentially need to move locations around, based on the day, the feeling of the patient and so forth.

Within each sketched space, I imagined the various objects that a person would interact with, either by touching or through some sort of action.

The spaces and objects highlighted with blue are areas I considered may receive more interaction within that specific environment.

img_20170629_153311

As I was sketching out each space I realized I needed another perspective of the space I was imagining. To compliment the first set of sketches I drew out an imagined blueprint of the space to give me a better idea of how a person could move through the space and potential interactions and barriers they may face.

Since the prototype I was working on was quite detailed, it was suggested in my feedback that I narrow in on a specific area, a specific time of day and to assume the patient has progressed to a point where they are no longer fully able bodied. It was also suggested that I look into the evolution of villages based on use and to use this as an example from which to reference. In building for the extreme user scenario it may help me work out the needs of the user and what types of spaces and objects would be suitable for building out a final prototype for this course.

4. Project Roadmap:

project_roadmaps_cait_jordan

For the project roadmap, I’ve broken down the next nine months into five categories: Initiation, Planning, Development, Testing and Closure.

Initiation: 

  • Submit REB
  • Determine stakeholders
  • Stakeholder interviews
  • Compile further research questions
  • Narrow scope of research
  • Finalize MRP proposal

Planning:

  • Observership – in hospital with physician
  • Continue working with case study
  • Recruit participants for user testing

Development:

  • Develop prototype
  • Answer questions addressed in MRP
  • Revise research problems and questions
  • Compile and organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Finalize draft of MRP
  • Continue meeting with Primary Advisor
  • Have MRP edited throughout seven month period

Testing:

  • First iteration of prototype
  • Second iteration of prototype
  • Third iteration of prototype
  • User testing
  • User testing feedback
  • Compiling feedback
  • Analyzing feedback
  • Test hypothesis
  • Integrate results in MRP

Closure:

  • Submit first full draft to committee
  • Meet with committee to review MRP
  • Update MRP based on committee feedback
  • Submit final document to committee
  • Final meeting and defence of MRP

5. User Flow Chart:

user_flow_chart_cait_jordan1

The user flow chart is based solely on the interactions of the patient, as they would be the only stakeholder wearing the device.

6. Test Plan:

The Physical Prototype

From here, I began working on the construction of a physical prototype using digital components. I was interested in the possibility of a wearable device and the ability to track various movements that could then be visualized three dimensionally based on the data inputs.

Questions to answer with the prototype:

What type of movement are sensors capable of picking up?

What is the correct input to track?

How can input be visualized in real-time?

Can this technology provide an accurate data visualization to both the patient and the physician?

Building on Feedback

Part of my feedback from Ana had been to look into capacitive sensors. With that helpful advice, I wad then able to investigate different sensors that have the ability to pick up and track various forms of movement.

Considerations:

  • sensors that require touch or interaction
  • tilt sensors (capacitative) for human movement detection
  • how does a phone know which way you’re holding it?

Sensors in phones:

  • accelerometer
  • gyroscope
  • digital compass – tilt compass
  • ambient light sensor
  • proximity sensor
  • magnetometer
  • barometer
  • heart rate sensor
  • strain gauge
  • force sensor?

After researching the capabilities of sensors, I found that inertial sensors offer a more comprehensive reading of movement. These are similar to the types of sensors that can now be found in vehicles.

MEMS Inertial Sensors:

  • based on inertia
  • type of accelerometer
  • read out electronics
  • self-test capabilities

Physical mechanisms include:

  • capacitive
  • piezoresistive
  • electromagnetic
  • piezorelectric
  • ferroelectric
  • optical
  • tunneling

MEMS offers good stability, low power consumption and output can be analog, digital or radiometric

An IMU (inertial measurement unit) uses a variety of built in accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure dimensions such as pitch, rotation, orientation, position and inclination for a comprehensive reading of movement. My plan was to program an IMU using an arduino uno board. After programming it using available arduino libraries, I then adjusted the code slightly in order to track the specific movements that I was looking for – a basic walking movement.

Considerations for IMUs:

MPU 9250 (9DOF IMU) – DOF=Degrees of Freedom

LSM 303D (9DOF IMU)

L3GD20H (9DOF IMU)

MPU 6050 (6DOF IMU)

SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) – 6000 MPU

Movements to track:

At that point, I hoped to track how a person was moving and walking. It was recommended that I attach a sensor to the back of a person’s phone, since phones are regularly with their owners. There are already a number of sensors built into most phones and it would be possible to create an app to track some of these movements. While I did consider this direction, I ultimately determined that I was more interested in building my own device.

This brought me back to the possibility of wearables, or possibly sensors, that could be attached and removed from an item, based on the needs of the user.

Technology

img_20170721_131036

  • Arduino Uno
  • MPU 6050 (IMU sensor) with 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and Digital Motion Processor which processes 6-axis Motion Fusion algorithms
  • mini bread board
  • connecting wires and cords
  • cell phone or other item to attach sensor to with adhesive
  • libraries from Github – https://github.com/jrowberg/i2cdevlib

img_20170721_131223

The MPU sensor required the pins to be soldered. From there, I was able to start putting the components together.

 

schematic-circuit-diagram

Schematic Diagram of Arduino Uno and MPU 6050 connections

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Software

arduino

I used open source libraries, found on Github, for the MPU 6050 and the i2c to program the Arduino Uno, customizing the code slightly.

serial-monitor-blank

After verifying and uploading the code, I ran the Serial Monitor to make sure the movement of the MPU could be read.

flat

The first reading is of the MPU device sitting untouched and stationary. The reading is consistent with each test.

swing-left

Testing the change in movement, the serial monitor below depicts the movement of the MPU when being swung to the left, in the motion of arm movement.

tilt-down

The next serial monitor depicts the movement of the MPU as it’s swinging downwards.

swing-right

The final serial monitor depicts the swinging motion of the MPU to the right, (in an upwards motion) using the motion of my arm to depict it.

processing

Processing code – MPU_TEAPOT 

Visualization

The code for the MPU 6050 was run through the arduino software and the 3D visualization, based on the input to the arduino, was created and modelled using a Processing library called, MPU_TEAPOT.

teapot

3D visualization for MPU_TEAPOT 

I altered the colours of the teapot, so they weren’t quite so harsh while viewing the visualization. I then worked on testing the arduino and MPU 6050 as a wearable device.

Final Prototype Documentation:

After receiving some final feedback in class, I considered how to integrate the device into a piece of clothing or footwear.

I liked the idea of a device that could eventually be interchangeable and perhaps be moved from one location, such as a pant pocket, to a purse, to a sock and so forth. It was brought to my attention that instead of moving the devices around, there could be various devices for different types of movement tracking. These devices could be worn separately or together. If worn together, they could perhaps speak to one another and build a better picture of how an individual is moving in real-time.

Ultimately, ant individual device would be able to speak to a larger and stationary device in the home, since my main interest is the movement of the individual in their own home environment.

The device was ultimately integrated into a shoe. This was done because of the type of movement I was looking at tracking, that of a person walking and how this changed over time. Since the foot directs the movement of the leg, it made sense to attache the device to footwear of this area of the body. The feet and legs of an individual with Parkinson’s often experience tremors and dystonia, where the toes curl under and become rigid, altering the ability of the individual to move with ease. While experiencing tremors or dystonia, an individual would have a decrease in balance, shuffled steps and the inability to turn left or right. Since the arduino board was so large and cumbersome, I worked on attaching it to a shoe in order to test it’s actual abilities.

img_20170804_143859

I laced the arduino onto my shoe in hopes of being able to actually track the motions and visualize them in real-time through the visualization on my laptop.

img_20170804_143910

 

img_20170804_143340

The visualization is capable of picking up the movements, even those which are subtle and slight. This can be seen in the video below.

In the video, I make a variety of movements while wearing the device, turning my foot to the left and to the right, swinging it upwards, and making an average motion of a foot.

7. Install Sketches:

Installation at CFC

install-sketch

Install Sketch for the final CFC Presentation

 

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Full installation of the prototype, visualization on the laptop, running shoe and poster

While the prototype was not fully assembled in the shoe, the components were both presented in order to build an understanding that the device would ultimately be embedded in the shoe. I was also concerned that the amount of information would be overwhelming and take away from the actual capabilities of the prototype and how it could be understood through the visualization on the laptop screen.

img_20170727_150300The prototype shown with the onscreen visualization

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The MPU 6050 prototype shown with the running shoe used for testing 

cfcposter_caitpicThe poster display of pertinent information to both the project and the prototype.

8. Reflections:

 What didn’t work

While the visualization was a necessary component of the prototype display in order to understand the movement being tracked by the device, I would have liked to have redesigned the airplane to be a person walking or have shown a video of the prototype in action, more so than just my foot testing out the device.

The prototype itself was intended to be wearable but because of the constraints of requiring the Arduino to be connected to the laptop in order to create the visualization, the device wasn’t functional as wearable. A future iteration would require a smaller Arduino board with built in wifi and a battery pack instead of a cable connected to the laptop. From there, I would be able to work on building in vibrations or different sensations based on movements.

What worked

By focusing specifically on the movement of the legs, due to how tremors and dystonia can change an individual’s range of motion so drastically, I was able to narrow down the scope of my project slightly. I was also able to find a device that was capable of accurately measuring this movement, and further visualizing it for a greater understanding of how the leg and foot were being tracked.

Finally, instead of narrowing down a space in the home environment where a device could be placed in order to track movements, I was able to move away from fixating on the home space and look at the individual as someone who was not constrained by their environment. Looking at the wearable instead offered more freedom in terms of movements to track and look into.

What I learned

Movement is complex and difficult to track and what works for one person may not work for everyone. Movement is also so specific to context. In this sense, while I was initially interested in an individual’s movement being tracked in their home, I didn’t consider the times that the individual would be away from their home environment and how their movements would continue to be tracked during these times. This is perhaps why a wearable device that could speak to a home-use device, or possibly an app, would be the best approach for the future.

I could also benefit from working with existing technologies instead of building them from scratch, as I attempted to do with this prototype. As suggested in the first presentation with industry partners, I will continue looking into how tracking devices and monitoring can be appropriated from current industries and used in the health care industry.

I will further consider how a patient can have their own access to information without it needing to be accessed by a physician. This would allow the patient to have exclusive access and thereby determine whether or not they would want to share the information with anyone else. During the presentation, Martha questioned whether or not the physician would want to go through this data. This is worth considering as a physician may not deem the data as worthwhile or accurate and may further view the need to analyze a data visualization or graph as an added burden to their position.

I will also look at similar movement disorders and diseases, such as MS (Multiple Sclerosis) and diabetes, to see what kind of interventions and hacks have been initiated and led by their respective communities and becomes mainstream. This will prove beneficial in seeing how patients determine what is necessary as an intervention and how this can be applied to the realm of Parkinson’s disease.

Blog Post 6 – Test Plan

Prototype:

I will be building a physical prototype using digital components. This may be in the form of a wearable that tracks movement and creates a 3D visualization as the output of the movements tracked.

Ana suggested that I look at capacitive sensors, which was a great first step. Since then, I’ve been looking into different sensors that have the ability to pick up and track various forms of movement. After researching the capabilities of sensors, I found that inertial sensors offer a more comprehensive reading of movement. These are similar to the types of sensors that can now be found in vehicles. An IMU (inertial measurement unit) uses a variety of built in accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure dimensions such as pitch, rotation, orientation, position and inclination for a comprehensive reading of movement. My plan is to program an IMU using an arduino uno board. After programming it using available arduino libraries, I will adjust the code slightly in order to track the specific movements that I’m looking for – a basic walking movement for now.

Movements to track:

At this point, I would like to track how a person is moving and walking. It was recommended that I attach a sensor to the back of a person’s phone, since phones are regularly with their owners. There are already a number of sensors built into most phones and it would be possible to create an app to track some of these movements. While I did consider this direction, I ultimately determined that I am not interested in creating an app, since most apps are downloaded and deleted or never used. I am more interested in building my own device.

This brought me back to the possibility of wearables, or possibly sensors that could be attached and removed from an item, based on the needs of the user.

 

Technology: 

img_20170721_131036

  • Arduino Uno
  • MPU 6050 (IMU sensor) with 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and Digital Motion Processor which processes 6-axis Motion Fusion algorithms
  • mini bread board
  • connecting wires and cords
  • cell phone or other item to attach sensor to with adhesive
  • libraries from Github – https://github.com/jrowberg/i2cdevlib

 

schematic-circuit-diagram

Schematic Diagram of Arduino Uno and MPU 6050 connections

img_20170721_130940

Software:

I will use open source libraries, found on Github, for the MPU 6050 and the i2c to program the Arduino Uno, customizing the code slightly.

arduino

After verifying and uploading the code, I’ll run the Serial Monitor to make sure the movement of the MPU can be read.

serial-monitor-blank

The first reading is of the MPU device sitting untouched and stationary. The reading is consistent with each test.

flat

Testing the change in movement, the serial monitor below depicts the movement of the MPU when being swung to the left, in the motion of arm movement.

swing-left

The next serial monitor depicts the movement of the MPU as it’s swinging downwards.

tilt-down

The final serial monitor depicts the swinging motion of the MPU to the right, (in an upwards motion) using the motion of my arm to depict it.

swing-right

The code for the MPU 6050 will be run through the arduino software and the 3D visualization, based on the input to the arduino, will be created and modelled using a Processing library called, MPU_TEAPOT.

processing

Processing code – MPU_TEAPOT 

teapot

3D visualization for MPU_TEAPOT

The 3D visualization I’ve been testing with is depicted as an airplane. I’ve been using it to simply test how it moves and rotates based on the movement of the MPU. My next step is to work on creating a 3D visualization that better demonstrates stabilization and destabilization, instead of an image rotating in space. I’ve been considering calm water vs rougher waters and possibly using a boat and weather to depict the changes in movement.

 

Blog Post 3 – Project Roadmap for MRP

CFC Media Lab – Project Roadmap for MRP

project_roadmaps_cait_jordan

For the project roadmap, I’ve broken down the next nine months into five categories: Initiation, Planning, Development, Testing and Closure.

Initiation: 

  • Submit REB
  • Determine stakeholders
  • Stakeholder interviews
  • Compile further research questions
  • Narrow scope of research
  • Finalize MRP proposal

Planning:

  • Observership – in hospital with physician
  • Continue working with case study
  • Recruit participants for user testing

Development:

  • Develop prototype
  • Answer questions addressed in MRP
  • Revise research problems and questions
  • Compile and organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Finalize draft of MRP
  • Continue meeting with Primary Advisor
  • Have MRP edited throughout seven month period

Testing:

  • First iteration of prototype
  • Second iteration of prototype
  • Third iteration of prototype
  • User testing
  • User testing feedback
  • Compiling feedback
  • Analyzing feedback
  • Test hypothesis
  • Integrate results in MRP

Closure:

  • Submit first full draft to committee
  • Meet with committee to review MRP
  • Update MRP based on committee feedback
  • Submit final document to committee
  • Final meeting and defence of MRP

Blog Post 4 – Apply Futures Thinking to Concept

Class 5 of CFC Media Lab – July 4th

Futures thinking with Professor Suzanne Stein

Yesterday we were given a lecture by Professor Suzanne Stein, of the Strategic Foresight and Innovation program. As Professor Stein works in the field of foresight, she discussed with the class how to develop a scenario plan, a method of strategic planning. We looked at trends, counter trends and any signals that act as evidence of change.

We further discussed the taxonomy for trends by breaking it down in to a core framework of Political,Economic, Environmental, Technological, Social and Values.

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Suzanne then had us move into our respective groups in order to further discuss the trends we saw within our fields. As our group is looking at health design we focused on all aspects of healthcare, design and technology. She had us question the ideas we are developing and why they are relevant from a trends perspective.

Questions we considered were:

  • What are the trends and what are the drivers
  • How can we articulate where our ideas are situated
  • Identifying the type of trend – Social, Political, Technological, Environmental, Economic and Values
  • What is the preferred future we are trying to create
  • How can we work against our biases
  • Why is it relevant and what is the impact (how can an idea maintain its relevance)
  • What is implicit within the trends

We looked at current trends, whether items such as wearables, e-therapy. We looked as well at how consumers currently have access to any amount of information that they choose. This allows them to be both informed as never before but also possibly ill-informed. We looked at what is happening within the healthcare system, with a shortage of doctors, nurses and healthcare providers. We questioned how people will receive quality healthcare when the aging population is ever expanding. e looked at alternatives to government funded health care and questioned how technology can play a role as well as the detriments to health that it may be causing.

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After writing out our initial ideas for trends and counter trends, we worked on sorting the post-its in to categories based on the taxonomies outlined by Suzanne.

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After working in our separate groups, we brought all of our trends together as a class and looked at them on a larger scale using a timeline of past, present and future.

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We then worked on re-allocating the post-its into the blue grid. The post-its we moved were those we considered to be trends within the future, between 2020-2030. It was interesting to consider how current trends may continue into the future, while also considering which trends would not last. In doing so, we were able to question what it is about those trends in particular that allows them to persist and why. It was further interesting to see how so many ideas could come together while also still informing one another on a larger scale.

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This exercise was helpful in terms of relating the notion of futures and strategic foresight to our own work. Suzanne had us question aspects of our work and to think broadly and widely.I had not yet considered how trends could impact a design and ensure its success.

In applying these ideas to my own concept, I was not yet questioning how trends will move within the world of health care and how outside forces may create an impact. Since an aging population is a driver and will impact multiple trends and is considered an uncertainty, I have decided to bring that back into my work and look more closely at how the Canadian government is addressing it. I’ll also be looking at what is currently working for patients with Parkinson’s disease and what is not and how patients have looked at making their own interventions or hacks.

In moving forward I will also be further questioning how to create a design that can maintain relevance over a five year period and how to ensure that it is adaptable in order to change as needed, either for a patient, the population at large or because the design has simply become outdated. I will also quite struck by Suzanne mentioning that we should have a plan b, and have been thinking on this a bit.

For my work specifically I will have to look at different frameworks to support thinking and design around health, wellbeing and biomedicine. I will also need to look more closely at the patient-experience, health care intervention design and experience-based co-design in order to push this prototype further.

Blog Post 2 – DIGF-6021

Blog Post 2 – Documentation of Finished Paper Prototypes

Day 2 of the CFC Digital Futures Intensive – June 27th, 2017

Discussing the ‘What’ and Brainstorming the ‘Why’ in groups

Today we aimed to contextualize the ‘why’ aspect of our prototype process by questioning why this work and research is important and why a prototype is necessary to create the first place.

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For my research, the ‘why’ is concerned with the time between patient visits with clinicians. There is a need for increased knowledge sharing between a specialist and their patient in order to give the highest level of care possible. By sharing knowledge and ensuring that a patient has a full understanding of their own health, they will be empowered to continuously keep track of and understand the changes in their prognosis. This will lead to an increase in patient autonomy and ensure that a patient does not need to wait upwards of six months in order to comprehend what is occurring within their own body or mind.

Stakeholders

After determining our ‘why’, we looked at who the stakeholders are within our own work.  Who is our core audience or who are the people involved in the process?

For my work, the people I determined to be involved in the process are:

  1. The patient
  2. The health care provider (physician, specialist)
  3. Family members or primary care givers in the home

At first, I considered only the perspective of the patient, as they are the people who are central to the prototype. Upon further reflection, it became apparent that a physician or specialist would need to be involved as a stakeholder because the product that a patient chooses to interact with may need to be verified by the heath care provider. This product may also need to receive a verification or meet regulations standards for health care products within Canada in order to be deemed trustworthy. Finally, I began to consider the role that family members and primary care givers take on and how they further influence the patient. While these stakeholders may not engage directly with the prototype, they will engage with the patient directly and can influence how the patient chooses to interact with or engage with the final product.

In order to better understand the roles that each stakeholder plays, I began to question their needs, the information they would need to be asked and why.

In terms of level of importance, I believe it is valuable to know how each stakeholder collects and relays pertinent information to a third party. What are their means of collecting data and what forms of data are most easily understood by each group.

In looking at the patient and the primary care givers/family members, I believe it is important to understand what a day if the life of a patient looks like. This will help inform which space in the home are frequented most often and which items or objects within those spaces hold the most value or importance.

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Stakeholder Journey

Breaking down the prototyping experience into stages allowed me to look at the spaces within a patient’s home that may be frequented most often. This exercise allowed me to question what kinds of actions, thoughts and feelings could potentially occur within each space. The following image displays seven different stages, or spaces, within a home that a patient may move through. In order to better understand what kind of prototype would best serve the stakeholders involved, I looked at what types of interactions would happen within each space and why these may be of importance. I attempted to step outside of my own biases and think of the needs of diverse users in order to create a fuller picture of the experience. As this was an initial exploration of the stages, I believe that this exercise has the potential to be further explored and developed in the future in order to create a stronger understanding of how to design the prototype.

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Day 4 of the CFC Digital Futures Intensive – June 29th, 2017

Yesterday we focused on working in small teams and building out our first paper prototypes. I worked with Mahsa and Alex and we initially spent some time discussing our ideas and offering feedback on how our group members could begin to prototype.

My group suggested that I look at how the areas visited within a patient’s home change over time. They suggested that I look at how a patient would initially move through their space and how the spaces they frequent would change as their disease progressed and their mobility deteriorated.  img_20170629_153421

Based on the feedback from Ana on Wednesday and my feedback from my working group yesterday, I started to work through a prototype, focusing specifically on the interaction of a patient within their home.

I started by sketching out how I imagine a patient moving through their home and the various spaces and touch points on the journey in order to gain a well rounded and more informed understanding of a complex experience.

As I first began to sketch out the experience I evaluated the four considerations from the Prototyping Best Practices reading:

  • people – the person in question is the patient with Parkinson’s disease.
  • objects – what objects in a home would be touched or used most frequently. How would this change over time?
  • locations – the environment in question is the home space. Within the home space there are multiple locations, each with a very specific set of needs and uses.
  • interactions – What are the typical and a-typical interactions with objects and environments that could occur and how would these interactions change over time as a disease progressed?

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I started by drawing out how I would imagine a patient entering into their home and moving through the space. I later incorporated post-its because I realized that no interaction would be fixed and I would potentially need to move locations around, based on the day, the feeling of the patient and so forth.

Within each sketched space, I imagined the various objects that a person would interact with, either by touching or through some sort of action.

The spaces and objects highlighted with blue are areas I considered may receive more interaction within that specific environment.

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As I was sketching out each space I realized I needed another perspective of the space I was imagining. To compliment the first set of sketches I drew out an imagined blueprint of the space to give me a better idea of how a person could move through the space and potential interactions and barriers they may face.

Since the prototype I was working on was quite detailed, it was suggested in my feedback that I narrow in on a specific area, a specific time of day and to assume the patient has progressed to a point where they are no longer fully able bodied. It was also suggested that I look into the evolution of villages based on use and to use this as an example from which to reference. In building for the extreme user scenario it may help me work out the needs of the user and what types of spaces and objects would be suitable for building out a final prototype for this course.

Blog Post 1 – DIGF-6021

Blog Post 1 – June 27th, 2017

Product 1: “The Emma Watch”

The What:

Emma Lawton was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease at the age of 29. Shortly after receiving the diagnosis she began to experience tremors which prevented her from writing or drawing clearly, something she relies on daily as a graphic designer. The “Emma Watch” was developed by Microsoft to ease her tremors while writing and drawing.

The Why:

One of the many symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease is related to tremors. Tremors are the cause of uncontrollable movements and shaking and affect the ability of a person to perform daily tasks such as writing, typing, dressing or cooking. For Emma specifically, she has been unable to print her name or draw a straight line since being diagnosed. The “Emma Watch” enables her to use drawing tools as she once did, with full autonomy, pride and enjoyment.

The How:

The “Emma Watch” uses small motors that create vibrations in the form of a pattern on the wrist of the user. These vibrations then cause a disruption between the hand and the brain, allowing for the writing hand to move with added ease as the marking instrument moves across the page.

The So What:

Not only does the watch have the ability to ensure the wearer can draw and print more clearly, but the wearer has an increased sense of autonomy and empowerment. The watch creates an immediate change to symptoms and allows the user increased movement and ability. The technology embedded within the watch is further capable managing other symptoms that impact daily life and are related to Parkinson’s disease. This could be capable through the sensors and software within the watch that could monitor users for increased muscle rigidity or tremors in other areas of the body, such as legs.

 

References:

 Jones, B. (2017, May 10). Microsoft Shows Wearables that Assist Graphic Designer with Parkinson’s Disease. Digital Trends. Retrieved from: https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/microsoft-research-parkinsons-disease-emma/

McGoogan, C. (2017, May 11).  Microsoft built a watch that calmed woman’s Parkinson’s tremors. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/05/11/microsoft-built-watch-calmed-womans-parkinsons-tremors/

Ohene, A. (2017, June 14). ‘Project Emma’ tremor-reducing watch unveiled by Microsoft CEO. Parkinson’s Life. Retrieved from: http://parkinsonslife.eu/emma-lawton-haiyan-zhang-tremor-reducing-watch-unveiled-microsoft-ceo/

 

Product 2: “The LiftWare Spoon”

The What:

The LiftWare spoon is an assistive device created as a response to limited mobility and hand tremors in people living with neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy and Huntington’s disease. The device allows the user’s hand to steady and remain level while eating.

The Why:

People living with neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, often struggle to feed themselves due to the shaking from a tremor, a common symptom of the disease. Not only does this cause difficulty and frustration when the user is attempting to eat, but it causes a decrease in confidence and the inability of the user to be autonomous as they will rely on the support of a care giver or family member in order to be fed.

The How:  

LiftWare has developed a device that detects and tracks the tremors of the user and counteracts the movements. The device works by using sensors, motors and an onboard computer that are built into the handle and uses technology similar to image stabilization features within cameras. Using two built in motors, the handle stabilizes the utensil attachment by directing it in the opposite direction of the tremor and counteracting the movement. An algorithm then senses the motion and determines whether or not the motion was intentional or unintentional. If the algorithm determines that the movement was unintentional, the device will move in the opposite direction. This allows the user to eat foods they normally would not be able to enjoy, such as soups or cereals, without spilling.

The So What:

The LiftWare spoon can increase the autonomy of the user and change their self-perception. For a neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson’s disease, mental health and well-being directly impact the rate at which the disease progresses. Making small improvements in the life of an individual living with such a disease can add to an improved quality of life overtime.

In looking at tools such as cutlery, which have seen little change in design and function over the decades, this product could challenge designers to re-examine the needs of the user. Instead of designing for the average individual, the success of this design demonstrates that the needs of users are not atypical and designing for the outliers can prove beneficial.

 

References:

Rosen, R. J. (2013, September 25). A Spoon for People with Parkinson’s. The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/a-spoon-for-people-with-parkinsons/279984/

 

Product 3: A Somaesthetic Display for Embodied Reflection

The What:

The somaesthetic display uses body data and investigates the notions of self-tracking and self-improvement in order to question how design interaction can encourage the user to reflect upon a personal and embodied experience.

The Why:

This work reflects upon gamification techniques, which have previously encouraged users to achieve health and fitness goals. While they have seen success, the author questions the ability to trust the data from such devices. Instead the author questions how personal data can be trusted and how it can facilitate behavioural changes, build new and healthy habits and improve the self. In using water to visualize an increase or decrease in heart rate, the work reflects on how the user is feeling and encourages reflection of the experience. It further demonstrates that a visualization can be used to encourage self-reflection on the state of one’s body, instead of relying on complex medical data.

The How:

The somaesthetic display way created using an interactive display, wireless input of the user’s heart rate biofeedback and computer vision that generated a visualization of the heart rate as water. As the heart rate of the user increased, the water on the screen would become turbulent but as the heart rate decreased, the waters would settle and become still and calm.

The So What:

The work encourages the user to question what kind of data they are using and why it is considered trustworthy. The user is also encouraged to question why technology is often considered a solution for solving a medical or health related problem. In creating a space where the user can begin to ask these question, they have the ability to consider how well they know their body. Instead of looking to qualitative data, the user can examine how they feel overall.

Additionally, interpreting medical data is generally associated with a specific skill set and a higher level of medical expertise. The ability of the user to interpret their own medical data is often not possible or can be considered overwhelming for many users of medical devices and tools. If the user feels overwhelmed, the device will become obsolete and can cause further alienation or difficulty for the user. The somaesthetic display considers how to move away from the use of colour to display heart rate in order to visualize data in a way that encourages self and bodily reflection as well as full comprehension of the data set.

 

References:

Jones, L. (2016). Your Body of Water: A Somaesthetic Display for Embodied Reflection (Master’s thesis, OCAD University, Toronto, Canada). Retrieved from http://openresearch.ocadu.ca/id/eprint/698/1/Jones_Lee_2016_MDes_DF_Thesis.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

Design opportunities work september -December 2016

September:Assignment 1, design opportunities ideals

  1. Inclusive education public policy
  2. Self-employed graduates
  3. Low cost Assistive technology

Write a paragraph discussing how one or more of your design ideas (from Assignment 1 Part A) might inclusively “afford” certain actions.

The third design idea I submitted is low cost assistive technology. It is about addressing the problem of high production costs and market prices of Assistive technologies which results into Assistive Technology Users´ high dependency on Family support, Government assistance such as social security, disability assistance and funding from charities to buy the products and services.
While Public investment policies and other public policies provide funding to users to buy the assistive technologies. The assistance is not adequate to enable them buy high priced customized assistive technology products and services that allow users to have independent living, work and contribute productively. It only enables them to get low cost basic assistive technologies(AT) that do not enable them have full independent living.
The solution i suggest is that of design of inclusive public investment policies at all levels that reduce the production costs of assistive technology products and services through Tax waive off and public funding for small scale assistive technology manufacturers and others in return for reduction of market prices which are affordable by all users of assistive technology at all levels.
The inclusive design of public investment policy and system puts the user assistive technology and involves all stakeholders including AT small scale manufacturers, Policy makers, distributors and others. The inclusive public investment policy and systems will stimulate innovation and high production levels of different categories of assistive technologies for a small market of users. When the supply of products is higher than the demand then this results into reducing the prices of the quality customized products which are affordable. The user will live independently and will not depend on charity as he can participate in productive work and earn income.

Assignment 2a: WCAG compliant quad submission:

 

Design idea 1: Equitable access to education for all

The figure 1 is a image of unbalanced weighing scale representing inequalities in education sector as a result of non-inclusive education policies, practices and curriculum.

Problem:

Non inclusive public education policies, practices and curriculum.
There are inequalities in access to education and learning in schools. The policies do not establish budgets and obligations and duties for schools to put in place inclusive environments for learners with different disabilities to access learning in schools. Teachers’ training curriculum do not include the inclusive education skills and knowledge building training required to enable all learners access education. The school curriculum do not address the learning needs of learners with disabilities.

Target:

Children and young individuals with disabilities.
Over 90% of children living with disabilities are out of school in developing countries according to UNESCO report 2012.

Design solution:

Inclusive public education policies, practices and curriculum.

Design Idea 2: Self-employed graduates.

The figure is a image of two intersecting circles of which one represents the demand for doctors and second one represents the graduates from the education system. The number of graduates that meets the demand for five doctors is three doctors. This is the intersection of the two circles. The remain 2 doctors are demanded and this represents a gap of two doctors in first circle. The second circle has two unemployed teachers as there is no demand for teachers. The image shows that the education sector does not meet the demands of the economy or industries.

Problem:

High rate of unemployed graduates.
There is high number of unemployed graduates on streets. They do not have vocational skills nor experience required by some employers to get the job. They cannot start their own businesses to be self-employed.

Target:

The young graduates. A significant number of young graduates is unemployed and many are on streets looking for jobs.

Design solution:

Vocational training and industrial apprenticeship.
The vocational training programme will empower graduates with hands on skills such as decoration, tailoring, how to make bread, cakes, wine, soap and others. These enable graduates to start up their own small scale business thus becoming self-employed. Industrial apprenticeship will provide practical capacity building .and graduates will acquire experiences.

Design idea 3: Low cost Assistive technology(AT) products

The figure 2 is a picture of two circles of which one represents producers’ high cost of manufacturing assistive technology products and the second circle represents consumer high prices of assistive technology products. There is an arrow between the two circles with point in the direction of consumer high price circle. This means that the producers pass on high costs to the consumers in form of high prices. Below the two circles is a long rectangle representing public investment policies and system. There are arrows between the two circles and the rectangle. The arrow between the procucers’ AT high cost circle and rectangle pointing in direction of rectangle represents the taxes paid by producers in government treasury which supports public investments. The arrow between consumer high price circle and rectangle pointing in direction of circle represents public investments in form of social security support, disability assistance support and others aimed at lowering cost of living for user of assistive technology to have decent living. There are more two arrows pointing at consumer high price circle. These represent the family support and non -public assistance that users to have access to products and services including AT products at affordable price

Design problem:

Unaffordable prices of Assistive technology products for users.
The high cost of manufacturing assistive technology products results into high market prices of assistive technology products because manufacturers pass on the high cost to consumers in form of high prices of the products. The government through the public investment schemes such as the disability assistance programme, health insurance and social security programme and together with Family and private foundations’ assistance supports the AT users to access assistive technologies. However most of the time these initiatives only enable users to access basic assistive technology products that are not fully customized to their needs. They cannot live independently and continue to rely on goodwill and charity from government, family, private foundation and others.

Tagret:

Older individuals and individuals with disabilities.
The majority users of assistive technology products are older individuals and individuals with disabilities who have difficulties in body functioning and environment has barriers that limits their full and effective participation.

Design solution:

Inclusive public Investment policy and framework.
The development of an inclusive investment policy and framework will position the users’ prices of assistive technology products and producers costs of production at the center of public investments. Policy will establish public fund to establish AT public design laboratories for use by AT emerging designers and small scale manufacturers. Funds will also support assistive technology product development and it’s delivery to the market at affordable prices. Public will own shares in the sales of the product until it’s public investments are recovered. Policy will also offer tax holidays for small and medium AT manufacturers struggling with high cost of production and return will be affordable market prices for assistive technology products.

October.

Tackle the complex notion of categorization discussion.

One of my design ideas is inclusive education public policy that responds to the needs of diverse learners with varying abilities. Understanding the diverse needs of learners requires categorization of diverse groups of learners to understand better their diversity and their varying needs and abilities. The inclusive education policy also categories different stakeholders such as Government, teachers, parents, school administration according to their mandate and responsibilities towards responding to needs of diverse or all categories of learners in the learning environment.

Use your models or visualizations that show the spectrum of design ideas to propose possible clusters (or categories) of ideas that could serves as the basis for teams.

The 38 design ideals are categorized in a spectrum of four main needs which include; legal and policy, physical, economic, social, information, communication and Technology(ICT). Some design responses or solutions cut across more than one category as demonstrated below. Each of the design ideals is assigned number to identify it from each other. Each design ideal is under the four categories above however some ideals appear in more than one category and this implies the relationships between the sector in addressing the needs of individuals and community. The allocation of numbers for each of design ideal for Identification is as follow;

1. Inclusive way finding (1)
2. Web tool (2)
3. Hot Dog holder (3)
4. Dermatology for everyone (4)
5. Smart sheet Music (5)
6. Restaurant booking system (6)
7. Clearing Cabbage near bus and train station/game (7).
8. A coffee cup (8)
9. Augmented reality experience to support long distance runners (9)
10. ADHD in focus (10)
11. Life guard band (11)
12. Women safety app (12)
13. Responsive Canvass redesign (13)
14. Voice marginalia (14)
15. Safe walk design (15)
16. VR stimulator (16)
17. Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College (17)
18. Inclusive education centers (18)
19. The trip Helper (19)
20. Communication Aids and support workers in Prison (20)
21. 911 Panic button (21)
22. ADOD reporting (22)
23. Inclusive education policy and system (23).
24. Low cost assistive technology (24)
25. Employment policies (25)
26. Toilet tissue alarm system (26)
27. Portable light (27)
28. Sensor operated can cabbage (28)
29. Parking app (29)
30. Integrated emergency responsive (30)
31. Juice Jar (31)
32. Tilt Book shelf (32)
33. How to provide tactile live sport experience (33)
34. Communication tool (34)
35. Awareness arising for Muslim facing discrimination at work (35)
36. Highway street lights poles (36)
37. Maintenances service design solutions (37)
38. Asus key design solution. (38)

The above design ideals are categorized as follow;

Legal and policy needs design response

Inclusive education policy and systematic reporting, Inclusive education policy and system.

Physical needs,
Tilt Book shelf, Safe walk, Highway street lights poles, Parking app,
Maintenances service design solutions.

Economic needs design response

Low cost assistive technology through public investment policy.

Social needs design response

Muslim in work place facing discrimination, Inclusive education centers, A coffee cup
Hot Dog, The trip Helper, Communication Aids and support workers in Prison, Communication tool for students and lectures. Juice Jar

Technology needs design response

Inclusive way finding, Web tool, Dermatology for everyone, Smart sheet Music
Convenient eat place, Clearing Cabbage near bus and train station, Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College, Augmented reality experience to support long distance runners, ADHD in focus, Life guard band, Women safety app, Responsive Canvass, Voice mrginala
VR stimulator, Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College, 911 Panic button
Self-employed graduates, Toilet tissue alarm system, Portable light, Sensor operated can cabbage, Integrated emergency responsive, How to provide tactile live sport experience, Asus key design solution.

November.

Discuss one or more of your design ideas through the lens of memory as a resource for affording understandability.

The Inclusive Public Education policy design idea can be understood through the lens of the memory. The memory resources enables the remembering of the what, how, when, why, questions and answers of Inclusive public education policy. Without the memory resource, we cannot remember the design idea.

December

Discuss a design idea presented in class relative to the WCAG robustness principle.

Robust principal with in the public policy and Built environment would imply that public policy is understand, used and accessible by wide range of users from members of communities, business, law enforcers. The built environment accommodates diverse users with less difficulties. Robust principal and Inclusive Design share the same goal of inclusion of different elements based on the context. The design of the service or product or solution should be able to benefit a wide range of diverse users and compatible with different contexts and dynamics such as culture and changing environments.

Public policy compliance, Case study of public policy on Accessibility. Accessibility of Ontarian with disability(AODA,2005) Vs American Disability Act (ADA1990).

Introduction: Background

  Challenges related to compliance of the public policies and laws

  1. Complex to understand the policy (Maya report,2014)
  2. Limited resources to enable compliance (maya report,2014)
  3. Limited awareness about existing standards, Policies.
  4. Limited standards (Paul Bear report,2010)
  5. Institutional framework.

Description of the Problem

  1. Limited compliance results into exclusion and limited access to built environment, services and goods.

Purpose of the Project

  • Develop a model that addresses challenges related to compliance with Accessibility policy.

Objectives and questionnaires

  1. Which action can contribute to compliance with Accessibility Public Policy?
  2. What are some of the existing intervention that support compliance with accessibility public policy?
  3. What are some of the good practices in compliance with Accessibility public policy?

Methodology:

  1. Questionnaires, Observation
  2. Interviews
  3. Secondary data analysis.

Scope and Limitation:

  • Response will not address the challenge related to lack of resources to support compliance with accessibility?

Literature Review:The case study of AODA and ADA:

Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005.

AODA 2005 has five accessibility standards which are: customer services, employment, design of public space spaces, information and communications and transport standards. These five standards are accompanied by general requirements which are: provide training to staff and volunteers; develop an accessibility policy; create a multi-year accessibility plan and update it every five years; consider accessibility in procurement and when designing or purchasing self-service kiosks. The combination of the five standards and the general requirements forms the Integrated Accessibility standards of the AODA as show in the Diagram below.

Diagram of Integrated Accessibility standards.

Description:

The Diagram has a rectangle on top which represents Integrated Accessibility standard regulations(IASR). Below the rectangle is the set of three rectangles on the left side and three rectangles on the right side. The first rectangle on the left side is General requirements and the first one on the right side is Customer service standard. The two are connected to the top rectangle. Below the general requirements rectangle on the left side is information and communications rectangle and below it is the transport standard rectangle. These are connected to each other and then connect to the main rectangle. The right side below the customer service standard there is employment standard and design of public space standard. Also these connect to each other and then connect the main integrated accessibility standard regulations.

Below the general requirements rectangle on the left side is information and communications rectangle and below it is the transport standard rectangle. These are connected to each other and then connect to the main rectangle. The right side below the customer service standard there is employment standard and design of public space standard. Also these connect to each other and then connect the main integrated accessibility standard regulations.

The Standards and the General Guidelines.

The IASR includes, The AODA standards are part of the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASRhttps://www.ontario.ca/laws/regulation/110191) in addition to requirements specific to each standard, the following general requirements:

  1. provide training to staff and volunteers
  2. develop an accessibility policy
  3. create a multi-year accessibility plan and update it every five years
  4. consider accessibility in procurement and when designing or
  5. purchasing self-service kiosks.

Institutional framework of AODA.

  1. Ontario Accessibility Directorate (https://www.ontario.ca/page/accessibility)
  2. Compliance reports by both Business and Public Institutions required. .
  3. Compliance penalty ranges from 100,00 dollars to 50,000 dollars.

ADA 1990 as amended in 2008.

  • The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places that are open to the general public.
  • Amended in 2008 and title I, II, III and V integrated into Title 42.
  • Monitored by number of institutions.

ADA sections

  • Title I: Employment (US Equal opportunity commission)
  • Title II – Public Services: State and Local Government (Dept of Justice)
  • Title III – Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities (US Department of Justice).
  • Title IV – Telecommunications (Federal communication commission).
  • Title V – Miscellaneous Provisions (relation with other laws, State immunity, conditions not considered as disability. https://adata.org/factsheet/ADA-overview

Compliance comparison:

           AODA 2005                                                                ADA 1990.

State or regional                                                    Federal Law

Accessibility Directorate                                     Depart of Justice & Multiple institutions follow up.

Legal Framework                                                  multiple laws/Public litigation.

Disability Movement not strong                        Civil rights movement aware of rights strong.

Few standards                                  Many standards covering number of sectors Health, education

Accessibility Policy compliance and Built environment.

Problem: Limited compliance to Public policy and laws on Accessibility(AODA) by Businesses.

The image is a diagram of the wheelchair users representing public policy on accessibility trying to climb up the steps that leads to the top up where services and goods by business and public institutions are provided.

Impact of the problem

  1. Inaccessible services and goods excluding users with disabilities.
  2. Noncompliance with the public policy
  3. Users with disabilities are excluded in enjoying the social (education, health), Economic(employment) and Political (Participation in elections and accessing elections) opportunities.

Solution:

  1. Provision of accessible services and goods by business and public agencies.
  2. Awareness arising and provision of information on accessibility standards and policy to users, policy enforcers, Businesses and staff of public agencies and others.

Stakeholders:

  1. Users with disabilities
  2. Community members
  3. Businesses
  4. Public institutions and enforcers of the policy.

 

Porotype solution: Information interactive Interface

Facilitates interaction and provides information among the users with disabilities, Businesses and public institutions providing goods and services, technical experts on accessibility and policy makers /public institution in charge of accessibility.
The Diagram has an Horizontal rectangle diagram representing the central information server system that facilitates interaction and exchange of information among different agents. There are five squares connected to the horizontal rectangle. The two squares connected on the top of rectangle represent the users or the community members and the technical experts on accessibility respectively. The two squares connected below the rectangle or down represent the public agency in charge of accessibility and businesses respectively. The 5th square on top of the rectangle or on the west side represents the public institutions providing services and goods.

Interpretation of the Diagram:

The two arrow lines from the users’ square on top represents the provision of information and feedback on accessible services and goods provided by public institutions and businesses. The two arrows from the technical expert square on top represents technical knowledge and expertise and feedback provided to businesses and public institutions having challenges of inaccessible goods and services

The public agency in charge of accessibility square below rectangle represents awareness arising and feedback on public policy and laws on accessibility to the different stakeholders as represented by the center middle line connecting two end points connecting users, public institution and public agency on accessibility connected point on one side and Technical experts on accessibility and businesses connected point on other side.

The business square below the rectangle represents information on accessible and inaccessible services and goods provided and received by businesses.

The Rectangle provides connection and interactions among businesses, Government institutions, users and technical experts on accessibility to addresses the challenge of inaccessible built environment, goods and services.

Conclusion:

The awareness arising and provision of information about the AODA and accessibility standards empowers the users to hold accountable those who do not provide accessibility and demand their right to accessibility. Users will report cases of inaccessible environments through the interface.

The Business and public institutions providing services and goods will have access to technical knowledge and assistance to improve accessibility of their services and goods. The interface links them to different technical experts on Accessibility. They will also be aware of the standards, policies and laws on accessibility.

The Pubic institution in charge of Accessibility or the Directorate of disability and accessibility will be able to identify businesses and public institutions that do not comply with the policy and law. It will take appropriate intervention to increase compliance levels.

The Technical experts on Accessibility use the interface to provide technical assistance to increase compliance with the Public policy on accessibility and Built environment. This builds a link with the built environment as all aim at inclusion and accessibility.

Reference/List:

Charles beer, 2010, Report of the independent review of the accessibility for Ontarians with disabilities act, 2005
http://www.aoda.ca/report-of-the-independent-review-of-the-accessibility-for-ontarians-with-disabilities-act-2005/

US Access board reports,2015 https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings-and-sites/about-the-aba-standards

Mayo Moran,2015, The independent review report on the implementation and enforcement of the accessibility for ontarians with disabilities act,2005,www.aoda.ca/the-aoda-alliances-detailed-analysis-of-the-final-report-of-the-mayo-mo