September:Assignment 1, design opportunities ideals
- Inclusive education public policy
- Self-employed graduates
- Low cost Assistive technology
Write a paragraph discussing how one or more of your design ideas (from Assignment 1 Part A) might inclusively “afford” certain actions.
The third design idea I submitted is low cost assistive technology. It is about addressing the problem of high production costs and market prices of Assistive technologies which results into Assistive Technology Users´ high dependency on Family support, Government assistance such as social security, disability assistance and funding from charities to buy the products and services.
While Public investment policies and other public policies provide funding to users to buy the assistive technologies. The assistance is not adequate to enable them buy high priced customized assistive technology products and services that allow users to have independent living, work and contribute productively. It only enables them to get low cost basic assistive technologies(AT) that do not enable them have full independent living.
The solution i suggest is that of design of inclusive public investment policies at all levels that reduce the production costs of assistive technology products and services through Tax waive off and public funding for small scale assistive technology manufacturers and others in return for reduction of market prices which are affordable by all users of assistive technology at all levels.
The inclusive design of public investment policy and system puts the user assistive technology and involves all stakeholders including AT small scale manufacturers, Policy makers, distributors and others. The inclusive public investment policy and systems will stimulate innovation and high production levels of different categories of assistive technologies for a small market of users. When the supply of products is higher than the demand then this results into reducing the prices of the quality customized products which are affordable. The user will live independently and will not depend on charity as he can participate in productive work and earn income.
Assignment 2a: WCAG compliant quad submission:
Design idea 1: Equitable access to education for all
Non inclusive public education policies, practices and curriculum.
There are inequalities in access to education and learning in schools. The policies do not establish budgets and obligations and duties for schools to put in place inclusive environments for learners with different disabilities to access learning in schools. Teachers’ training curriculum do not include the inclusive education skills and knowledge building training required to enable all learners access education. The school curriculum do not address the learning needs of learners with disabilities.
Children and young individuals with disabilities.
Over 90% of children living with disabilities are out of school in developing countries according to UNESCO report 2012.
Inclusive public education policies, practices and curriculum.
Design Idea 2: Self-employed graduates.
High rate of unemployed graduates.
There is high number of unemployed graduates on streets. They do not have vocational skills nor experience required by some employers to get the job. They cannot start their own businesses to be self-employed.
The young graduates. A significant number of young graduates is unemployed and many are on streets looking for jobs.
Vocational training and industrial apprenticeship.
The vocational training programme will empower graduates with hands on skills such as decoration, tailoring, how to make bread, cakes, wine, soap and others. These enable graduates to start up their own small scale business thus becoming self-employed. Industrial apprenticeship will provide practical capacity building .and graduates will acquire experiences.
Design idea 3: Low cost Assistive technology(AT) products
Unaffordable prices of Assistive technology products for users.
The high cost of manufacturing assistive technology products results into high market prices of assistive technology products because manufacturers pass on the high cost to consumers in form of high prices of the products. The government through the public investment schemes such as the disability assistance programme, health insurance and social security programme and together with Family and private foundations’ assistance supports the AT users to access assistive technologies. However most of the time these initiatives only enable users to access basic assistive technology products that are not fully customized to their needs. They cannot live independently and continue to rely on goodwill and charity from government, family, private foundation and others.
Older individuals and individuals with disabilities.
The majority users of assistive technology products are older individuals and individuals with disabilities who have difficulties in body functioning and environment has barriers that limits their full and effective participation.
Inclusive public Investment policy and framework.
The development of an inclusive investment policy and framework will position the users’ prices of assistive technology products and producers costs of production at the center of public investments. Policy will establish public fund to establish AT public design laboratories for use by AT emerging designers and small scale manufacturers. Funds will also support assistive technology product development and it’s delivery to the market at affordable prices. Public will own shares in the sales of the product until it’s public investments are recovered. Policy will also offer tax holidays for small and medium AT manufacturers struggling with high cost of production and return will be affordable market prices for assistive technology products.
Tackle the complex notion of categorization discussion.
One of my design ideas is inclusive education public policy that responds to the needs of diverse learners with varying abilities. Understanding the diverse needs of learners requires categorization of diverse groups of learners to understand better their diversity and their varying needs and abilities. The inclusive education policy also categories different stakeholders such as Government, teachers, parents, school administration according to their mandate and responsibilities towards responding to needs of diverse or all categories of learners in the learning environment.
Use your models or visualizations that show the spectrum of design ideas to propose possible clusters (or categories) of ideas that could serves as the basis for teams.
The 38 design ideals are categorized in a spectrum of four main needs which include; legal and policy, physical, economic, social, information, communication and Technology(ICT). Some design responses or solutions cut across more than one category as demonstrated below. Each of the design ideals is assigned number to identify it from each other. Each design ideal is under the four categories above however some ideals appear in more than one category and this implies the relationships between the sector in addressing the needs of individuals and community. The allocation of numbers for each of design ideal for Identification is as follow;
1. Inclusive way finding (1)
2. Web tool (2)
3. Hot Dog holder (3)
4. Dermatology for everyone (4)
5. Smart sheet Music (5)
6. Restaurant booking system (6)
7. Clearing Cabbage near bus and train station/game (7).
8. A coffee cup (8)
9. Augmented reality experience to support long distance runners (9)
10. ADHD in focus (10)
11. Life guard band (11)
12. Women safety app (12)
13. Responsive Canvass redesign (13)
14. Voice marginalia (14)
15. Safe walk design (15)
16. VR stimulator (16)
17. Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College (17)
18. Inclusive education centers (18)
19. The trip Helper (19)
20. Communication Aids and support workers in Prison (20)
21. 911 Panic button (21)
22. ADOD reporting (22)
23. Inclusive education policy and system (23).
24. Low cost assistive technology (24)
25. Employment policies (25)
26. Toilet tissue alarm system (26)
27. Portable light (27)
28. Sensor operated can cabbage (28)
29. Parking app (29)
30. Integrated emergency responsive (30)
31. Juice Jar (31)
32. Tilt Book shelf (32)
33. How to provide tactile live sport experience (33)
34. Communication tool (34)
35. Awareness arising for Muslim facing discrimination at work (35)
36. Highway street lights poles (36)
37. Maintenances service design solutions (37)
38. Asus key design solution. (38)
The above design ideals are categorized as follow;
Legal and policy needs design response
Inclusive education policy and systematic reporting, Inclusive education policy and system.
Tilt Book shelf, Safe walk, Highway street lights poles, Parking app,
Maintenances service design solutions.
Economic needs design response
Low cost assistive technology through public investment policy.
Social needs design response
Muslim in work place facing discrimination, Inclusive education centers, A coffee cup
Hot Dog, The trip Helper, Communication Aids and support workers in Prison, Communication tool for students and lectures. Juice Jar
Technology needs design response
Inclusive way finding, Web tool, Dermatology for everyone, Smart sheet Music
Convenient eat place, Clearing Cabbage near bus and train station, Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College, Augmented reality experience to support long distance runners, ADHD in focus, Life guard band, Women safety app, Responsive Canvass, Voice mrginala
VR stimulator, Tool for collaborative knowledge construction in College, 911 Panic button
Self-employed graduates, Toilet tissue alarm system, Portable light, Sensor operated can cabbage, Integrated emergency responsive, How to provide tactile live sport experience, Asus key design solution.
Discuss one or more of your design ideas through the lens of memory as a resource for affording understandability.
The Inclusive Public Education policy design idea can be understood through the lens of the memory. The memory resources enables the remembering of the what, how, when, why, questions and answers of Inclusive public education policy. Without the memory resource, we cannot remember the design idea.
Discuss a design idea presented in class relative to the WCAG robustness principle.
Robust principal with in the public policy and Built environment would imply that public policy is understand, used and accessible by wide range of users from members of communities, business, law enforcers. The built environment accommodates diverse users with less difficulties. Robust principal and Inclusive Design share the same goal of inclusion of different elements based on the context. The design of the service or product or solution should be able to benefit a wide range of diverse users and compatible with different contexts and dynamics such as culture and changing environments.
Public policy compliance, Case study of public policy on Accessibility. Accessibility of Ontarian with disability(AODA,2005) Vs American Disability Act (ADA1990).
Challenges related to compliance of the public policies and laws
- Complex to understand the policy (Maya report,2014)
- Limited resources to enable compliance (maya report,2014)
- Limited awareness about existing standards, Policies.
- Limited standards (Paul Bear report,2010)
- Institutional framework.
Description of the Problem
- Limited compliance results into exclusion and limited access to built environment, services and goods.
Purpose of the Project
- Develop a model that addresses challenges related to compliance with Accessibility policy.
Objectives and questionnaires
- Which action can contribute to compliance with Accessibility Public Policy?
- What are some of the existing intervention that support compliance with accessibility public policy?
- What are some of the good practices in compliance with Accessibility public policy?
- Questionnaires, Observation
- Secondary data analysis.
Scope and Limitation:
- Response will not address the challenge related to lack of resources to support compliance with accessibility?
Literature Review:The case study of AODA and ADA:
Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005.
AODA 2005 has five accessibility standards which are: customer services, employment, design of public space spaces, information and communications and transport standards. These five standards are accompanied by general requirements which are: provide training to staff and volunteers; develop an accessibility policy; create a multi-year accessibility plan and update it every five years; consider accessibility in procurement and when designing or purchasing self-service kiosks. The combination of the five standards and the general requirements forms the Integrated Accessibility standards of the AODA as show in the Diagram below.
Diagram of Integrated Accessibility standards.
Below the general requirements rectangle on the left side is information and communications rectangle and below it is the transport standard rectangle. These are connected to each other and then connect to the main rectangle. The right side below the customer service standard there is employment standard and design of public space standard. Also these connect to each other and then connect the main integrated accessibility standard regulations.
The Standards and the General Guidelines.
The IASR includes, The AODA standards are part of the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASRhttps://www.ontario.ca/laws/regulation/110191) in addition to requirements specific to each standard, the following general requirements:
- provide training to staff and volunteers
- develop an accessibility policy
- create a multi-year accessibility plan and update it every five years
- consider accessibility in procurement and when designing or
- purchasing self-service kiosks.
Institutional framework of AODA.
- Ontario Accessibility Directorate (https://www.ontario.ca/page/accessibility)
- Compliance reports by both Business and Public Institutions required. .
- Compliance penalty ranges from 100,00 dollars to 50,000 dollars.
ADA 1990 as amended in 2008.
- The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places that are open to the general public.
- Amended in 2008 and title I, II, III and V integrated into Title 42.
- Monitored by number of institutions.
- Title I: Employment (US Equal opportunity commission)
- Title II – Public Services: State and Local Government (Dept of Justice)
- Title III – Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities (US Department of Justice).
- Title IV – Telecommunications (Federal communication commission).
- Title V – Miscellaneous Provisions (relation with other laws, State immunity, conditions not considered as disability. https://adata.org/factsheet/ADA-overview
AODA 2005 ADA 1990.
State or regional Federal Law
Accessibility Directorate Depart of Justice & Multiple institutions follow up.
Legal Framework multiple laws/Public litigation.
Disability Movement not strong Civil rights movement aware of rights strong.
Few standards Many standards covering number of sectors Health, education
Accessibility Policy compliance and Built environment.
Problem: Limited compliance to Public policy and laws on Accessibility(AODA) by Businesses.
Impact of the problem
- Inaccessible services and goods excluding users with disabilities.
- Noncompliance with the public policy
- Users with disabilities are excluded in enjoying the social (education, health), Economic(employment) and Political (Participation in elections and accessing elections) opportunities.
- Provision of accessible services and goods by business and public agencies.
- Awareness arising and provision of information on accessibility standards and policy to users, policy enforcers, Businesses and staff of public agencies and others.
- Users with disabilities
- Community members
- Public institutions and enforcers of the policy.
Porotype solution: Information interactive Interface
Facilitates interaction and provides information among the users with disabilities, Businesses and public institutions providing goods and services, technical experts on accessibility and policy makers /public institution in charge of accessibility.
Interpretation of the Diagram:
The two arrow lines from the users’ square on top represents the provision of information and feedback on accessible services and goods provided by public institutions and businesses. The two arrows from the technical expert square on top represents technical knowledge and expertise and feedback provided to businesses and public institutions having challenges of inaccessible goods and services
The public agency in charge of accessibility square below rectangle represents awareness arising and feedback on public policy and laws on accessibility to the different stakeholders as represented by the center middle line connecting two end points connecting users, public institution and public agency on accessibility connected point on one side and Technical experts on accessibility and businesses connected point on other side.
The business square below the rectangle represents information on accessible and inaccessible services and goods provided and received by businesses.
The Rectangle provides connection and interactions among businesses, Government institutions, users and technical experts on accessibility to addresses the challenge of inaccessible built environment, goods and services.
The awareness arising and provision of information about the AODA and accessibility standards empowers the users to hold accountable those who do not provide accessibility and demand their right to accessibility. Users will report cases of inaccessible environments through the interface.
The Business and public institutions providing services and goods will have access to technical knowledge and assistance to improve accessibility of their services and goods. The interface links them to different technical experts on Accessibility. They will also be aware of the standards, policies and laws on accessibility.
The Pubic institution in charge of Accessibility or the Directorate of disability and accessibility will be able to identify businesses and public institutions that do not comply with the policy and law. It will take appropriate intervention to increase compliance levels.
The Technical experts on Accessibility use the interface to provide technical assistance to increase compliance with the Public policy on accessibility and Built environment. This builds a link with the built environment as all aim at inclusion and accessibility.
Charles beer, 2010, Report of the independent review of the accessibility for Ontarians with disabilities act, 2005
US Access board reports,2015 https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings-and-sites/about-the-aba-standards
Mayo Moran,2015, The independent review report on the implementation and enforcement of the accessibility for ontarians with disabilities act,2005,www.aoda.ca/the-aoda-alliances-detailed-analysis-of-the-final-report-of-the-mayo-mo…