During the 19th century, a new era called the industrial revolution emerges and the demand for more stuff was on the rise. As more people emigrated into the city life and was involved more into entertainment, the call for more mass media and advertising was on a new scale and a solution was needed. The rise of graphic designers and typographers was essential but the process of making posters was needing improvement. So during the end of the 1700s and the beginning of the 1800s, the growth of certain machines gave us the start of technology like the steam-powered presses, mechanized letterpresses, lithography, and chromolithography along with other improvements.

Friedrich Koenig was a German inventor working with his partner Andreas Bauer, who both came up with the first printer that could be able to print 1,000 pages an hour. This invention was revolutionary in making ephemera like the newspaper more accessible to everyday commoners. They later sold this power-press to the Times Newspaper in London for them to use and bring out a massive amount of daily papers to the people. But an improvement came shortly after which was invented by Richard Hoe in the mid-1800s. This rotary steam press was now able to bring out more than 8,000 sheets an hour. One example of a mass-produced book that was a selling hit was made by Johannes Gutenberg who used the Koenig’s steam-powered printing press (which was able to print double-sided at the same time) to make the Gutenberg Bible. Both these machines were able to power through and print off ephemera (which was not only newspapers) to be handed out to the public but were mostly done in black and white. This changed with a new invention. 

 

screenshot-06

Lithography and chromolithography came in the late 18th century to the latter half of the 19th century. This new commercial printing was invented by Alois Senefelder and was later to be used by many artists and designers to the 20th century. This chemical process of an image was to be drawn directly on a block of limestone and be pressed on substrates. This was an easy way to reproduce large quantities of papers and posters at a lower cost and it didn’t wear down like the printing press. But one of the main problems with this method was the process of transferring images onto the stone was a long process. When chromolithography came into the business it added more colour and was more accurate. These types of machinery contributed small amounts to gradually have what we do and the techniques that are being used in typography and graphic design world today.

 

screenshot-07