Industrialization in the 19thcentury created a dramatic shift within the classes that ultimately formed the face of Britain and Europe to what know of today.
Machines created an explosion of mass production. Workers were being easily replaced by machines that cost employers less and brought in more profit for themselves.
The movement of farmers from their once rural homes to now condensed cities created an increase in population. Many that migrated into the cities either became wealthy or had to live in horrible conditions. The wealthy ones often became factory owners that gained profit. Class structures were either you owned the means of production or you didn’t. The increase in population meant there was an increase in the need for employment. Factory owners glorified the creation of machines and needed employees that didn’t care for the low wages and would work 12-hour days and. No one was going to unless they had to and the ones that had to were the previous farmers that had no skills when compared to master craftsmen.
It cost factory owners less to make what they sold on the market in factories, unlike the Guild system. Factory owners were driven by mass production. They became a new source of social and economic power people that slowly created a middle class, which left the previous farmers at the bottom.
Scientific innovations and technological improvements in the workplace increased demand for social welfare, labor rights, and political rights. Though the government only consisted of high lords, church officials and wealthy citizens. The poor were often blamed for the drastic social change and were often denied unionized rights.
Mass production made type much like the ephemeral nature of factory workers. That it was easily replaceable and not long-lived. The mentality towards typography became the same as the glorification that factory owners had towards machines. Type can be made more cheaply than before. Mass production increased content and a variety of visual culture. Calligraphy was dead because of standardization brought by mass production; similar to the once skilled master craftsmen from the Guilds being replaced by lower classed factory workers. Someone else could even purchase letterpress print documents for advertisements.
To keep up the political structure afloat, factory owners used advertisements to break down social bonds. Advertisements re-established and supported the higher government. Advertisements of their factories that provided work for the poor could be located by ports and main areas where people gathered. Factory owners competed to climb the political ladder and for who could employ more low paying factory workers. This made Constant improvements in printing technology because they needed individual-specific representations to make their identity known in the environment of mass visual culture. New and fresh visual culture meant different typefaces were in demand, which meant Advertisements were often short-lived and seen in passing.
The need for ads and different types were high in demand. Commodity form was capitalism at the time and could be found in all productions of typefaces including advertisements and newspapers. A new culture emerged for people who had money and this supported often changing the visual culture to promote leisure opportunities for the wealthy. Leisure events helped people establish social rapid growth in urban centers. The poor, even if the whole family including children were working, could not afford more than a small overcrowded house let alone leisure time.