Design Inspiration – Dada and Punk, by Elain Zhao

The Art Critic 1919-20 Raoul Hausmann 1886-1971 Purchased 1974 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T01918

Raoul Hausmann, The Art Critic, 1919-1920

punk

Jamie Reid, Sex Pistols, God Save the Queen, 1977

Dada was a European avant-garde art movement began in the early 20th century in Switzerland since it was neutral during WWI. Dada was the artists’ a response to WWI, they reject the logic, reason and aesthetic of modern capitalist society, see the world as nonsensical and irrational.

Punk was born in the 1970s, almost 60 years after Dada. The subculture was centered by a loud and aggressive genre of rock music. It was a rejection of mainstream, corporate mass culture and its values. A common attitude in the punk subculture is the opposition to selling out, which means to adopt a more mainstream style and value in order to gain profit or popularity.

Dada and Punk had similar messages, they were both born out of social outburst. Dada was a fight against traditions of art, they believed that anything could be art. It’s been known as an Anti-art and Anti-war movement. Punk was a fight against the government, it was about Anarchism, rebellion and individual freedom.

The work of Jamie Reid was influenced by the image and type collages of the Dadaists. Both works are stylistically similar, they are consist of cut and pasted images, and a mixing of fonts and size. They used ransom note and newspaper clipping style, photomontage and collage. The idea of using existing resources to create new art was born from the Dada movement, it is shown in Raoul Hausmann’ work with things such as pictures of faces and suited man. Similarly, Reid used defaced image and ripped up flags in her work for the Sex Pistols.

The Influence of Walter Lippmann’s book “Public Opinion” on Raoul Marks’ title sequence for TV series “True Detective” (2014)

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Walter Lippmann’s book “Public Opinion”, 1922 (1943 edition)

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Raoul Marks’ title sequence for TV series “True Detective”, 2014

The first image is Walter Lippmann’s book “Public Opinion.” It is a very historical influential book about human communication. The design of its cover might have served as an influence to some later works, including Raoul Marks’ title sequence for TV series “True Detective” (2014). Marks masking technique is remarkably similar to that used in the cover of Walter Lippmann’s “Public Opinion,” they both take architectural structures and mask them into a person’s silhouette as a way of communicating to the viewer what that person is thinking about or what is important to them. The use of the negative space is also similar. They both benefit from the flatness of the background. All this white space allows for a clean placement of the type outside of the image area, making the viewer go back and forth between the two. In both designs, the masks allow for the inclusion of multiple elements without overcrowding the canvas, allowing for lots of white space.
Marks does take it to the next level by showing parts of the person’s face. The man is no longer unrecognizable. Now the viewer can identify a protagonist, which works well for the proposes of setting up the mood of the cinematic piece.

Design Inspiration: Bauhaus & Dr. Dre Beats

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Historical graphic design has left an impression on modern designers. Certain styles have been adapted and transformed however, there are elements contained in these modern designs that clearly indicate that they have been influenced by historical graphic design.

Bauhaus was an art school in Germany that was known for its iconic designs in architecture and fine arts. It was at Bauhaus where they had developed a modern, geometric, sleek typeface. Bayer’s Universal, the famous sans serif typeface that is seen in Bauhaus graphic design, originated from Josef Albers’s Stencil. This in itself had Art Deco elements, being highly stylized (Eskilson 230). Multiple experiments later, Bayer’s Universal was created in 1923. Some of the key features of this sans serif typeface were its strokes of uniform thickness and it consisted of perfect circles and horizontal and vertical lines. This type was created with the intention of being printed by machines which would be the perfect gateway to modern design.

An example of Bauhaus’ graphic design can be seen in the logo for Dr. Dre Beats. Heavily inspired by Bauhaus, the letter b consists of a perfect circle with a perfectly vertical ascender. An interesting point that can be made here is that Bauhaus typeface was created for functionality as well. In the logo for Dr. Dre Beats, the letter b mimics the side profile of the product that Dr. Dre Beats are creating which are on-ear/over-ear headphones. The simplicity of this typeface has had a great impact on design all the way up until this day and age as Dr. Dre Beats is one of the most popular luxury headphones on the market.

 

Works Cited

Eskilson, Stephen John. Graphic Design: a New History. Conn., 2012.

 

Design Inspiration: Barbara Kruger & Shepard Fairey

ss35436_35436_19550994Starting in the 1980s, Barbara Kruger can be said to have pioneered a certain kind of design aesthetic that has gone on to find use in many sectors of the art world, as well as commercially. Kruger’s work Repeat After Me follows a convention common to much of her work: a black and white photo collage among text carrying a message that informs the viewing of the image, and communicates political commentary concerning it or concerning a broader narrative that the image fits within. Kruger often produces designs which support and elucidate Feminist ideology, or aim to bring about questioning of Capitalism or status quo.

In this work, Kruger uses her convention of bold oblique Futura type in white against a red background. The image displays a sort of puppet holding an optical illusion, possibly meant to hypnotize the viewer. The phrase ‘Repeat after me,’ matched with the puppet imagery can be read as a skewering of social expectation, in that a capitalistic society expects us, the viewer to be like puppets who repeat the behavior of the past to the benefit of some other party.

ss35436_35436_19383200Much in the same vein, and borrowing not only aesthetic style but also common themes in their content, is graffiti artist and designer Shepard Fairey. The inspiration from Kruger’s work can especially be seen in his most popular work, first proliferated in 2002 but repeated often since then, Obey Giant. The most obvious inspiration from Kruger is the use of oblique bold Futura. While Fairey’s usage is typically in all upper cases versus Kruger’s mix of cases, his work also hold in common convention the frequent use of compositions restricted to white, black, and red.

Fairey doesn’t stop short of reference to Kruger simply in aesthetic style though. The theme of his quintessential work is also similar to much of Kruger’s, and especially Repeat after me. While Kruger’s work displays a puppet trying to hypnotize, Fairey’s work shows a stylization of Andre the Giant in Big Brother fashion imploring us to ‘OBEY.’ The message is similar in both pieces: give in to the status quo and obey. Both Kruger and Fairey use similar design conventions to turn the obfuscated messaging of the status quo into overt statement through satire. Another inspiration Fairey draws from Kruger is the use of the figure as an element looking out at you. Kruger’s work often shows people looking out to the viewer with messaging that can either be viewed as being communicated by the person or seen as a comment on their situation in the design. Fairey’s work, especially the Obey Giant has itself gone on to become a commodity in apparel, stickers, or other ephemera. In this way, Fairey’s work can be seen as carrying the torch that Kruger lit, not only criticizing a Capitalist status quo through satire, but becoming a deeper part of that narrative through commodification of the satire into product.


Works Cited & Referenced:

Kruger, Barbara (American conceptual artist, designer, and writer, born 1945). Repeat After Me. 1985-1994. http://library.artstor.org.ocadu.idm.oclc.org/asset/SS35436_35436_19550994. Web. 28 Mar 2018.

 

Fairey, Shepard (American graphic artist, active late 20th-early 21st centuries). Obey Giant. 2002. http://library.artstor.org.ocadu.idm.oclc.org/asset/SS35436_35436_19383200. Web. 28 Mar 2018.

Eskilson, Stephen J. Graphic Design: A New History. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn, 2012.

Design Inspiration

The Bauhause was an influential German school of design from the 1919-1930. The design aesthetics that were derived from its teachings have inspired many modern-day designers to take aspects of Bauhause design and implement them into their own designs. Herbert Bayer, Notgeld emergency currency notes created in 1923 and the new $10 Canadian bank note created in 2018 is a prime example of how modern-day designers are taking inspiration from the past and bringing it into the present.

The new vertical design of the 2018 Canadian bank note is reminiscent of the design of Herbert Bayer, Notgeld emergency currency notes created in 1923. The bank note that features Viola Desmond on the front is the first vertically designed banknote in Canada, this vertical design is reminiscent of the emergency currency notes, although these notes are horizontal they do have some vertical aspects. The designers of the 2018 $10 Canadian bank note have taken inspiration from these vertical aspects that the Bauhause designer has implemented on the right side of the emergency currency notes. Other aspects of the design that seem to be inspired by the emergency currency notes is the clearness of the amount. The number ten is large and located in 2 areas, the larger ten at the top of the bill and smaller ten at the bottom of the bill make it clear that the bank note is worth $10. This new $10 bank note is clear and organized when in comparison to the old bank note. Although the new bank note still has icons and bar codes it is designed with hierarchy in mind which is inspired by emergency currency notes.

 

tumblr_mjvkdg0tes1rpgpe2o1_1280 viola-desmond-10-billWorks Cited

“Design-Is-Fine.” Design Is Fine., 19 Mar. 2013, www.design-is-fine.org/post/45703440414/herbert-bayer-notgeld-1923-hyper-inflation-bank.

“New $10 Bill Featuring Nova Scotia Civil Rights Activist Was Unveiled Today | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/viola-desmond-10-unveiled-1.4567290.

“New $10 Bill Unveiled, Featuring Civil Rights Icon Viola Desmond.” Vancouver Courier, 8 Mar. 2018, www.vancourier.com/news/new-10-bill-unveiled-featuring-civil-rights-icon-viola-desmond-1.23196003.

Design Inspiration – Nabila Roshd

Robert Bonfils 1926 Catalog of the Touring Echibition of Objects from the  1925 Paris Exposition
Robert Bonfils
1926
Catalog of the Touring Exhibition of Objects from the 1925 Paris Exposition
Closure in Moscow  2018 First Temple - Vinyl Remaster
Stéphane Casier for Closure in Moscow
2018
First Temple – Vinyl Remaster

The American Art Deco movement was similar to that seen in other countries – it often featured delicately drawn women, centralized in the composition and accompanied by various fauna or other decorative elements. This piece by Robert Bonfils in particular, Catalog of the Touring Exhibition of Objects from the 1925 Paris Exposition, depicts a woman accompanied by an antelope, holding a basket of roses above her head. I believe that this piece and the Art Deco style was the inspiration for the cover of Closure In Moscow’s 2018 re-release of their album, First Temple, done by Stéphane Casier. You can see this in several instances within the design.
First, the colour and composition of First Temple resemble that of the American Art Deco style. The image focuses on a great contrast between the bright orange background and creamy white dress that drapes off the woman in the middle. The woman and the two astronauts stand on a surface covered by various plants that spring up from the ground and surround them. They are all constrained within three decorative shapes that frame them. The woman in the middle is the only one large enough to break through and serves as the focus of the image. They are surrounded by three circular orbs with a striped pattern within them. This connects back to the Art Deco movement as it implements the use of pattern and shape to further the composition. Furthermore, it is an example of Art Deco and not Art Nouveau as it rejects the overly curved ornamented style and rather carries on geometric shapes such as circles and rectangles to implement in the design. When comparing Bonfil’s piece, it offers a similar composition – red and white are used as the two main colours, and decorative geometric elements work to frame the woman in the middle. Both pieces are quite similar in subject matter and depiction and offer a similar feeling.
The artist might have chosen an Art Deco style for this album cover to create a new looking, elegant representation of the music. The music in this album is a technical yet sweet post-hardcore, shuffling through themes of romance and revenge. However, it ends sweetly on the note of love being put to rest through nature. I think this is complimented well with imagery inspired by Art Deco and uses the inspiration well to sell their concept.

Design Inspiration

Moulin Rouge: La Goulue is a historic example of graphic design. Made in the late 1800s, it was a time when graphic design was beginning to blossom both visually and as a career. This is a poster advertising a dance hall in Paris, France. This work is a coloured lithograph. Lithography is a form of printmaking, at was fairly new art/design form at this time. This print by French artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is visually memorable due to the dynamic, fluid poses that the subjects are captured in as well as the curving clear lines throughout the composition.

 

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan- East Coast Tour is a poster advertising the tour of these two musicians. Created in 1965 by Eric von Schmidt, this poster is clearly influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec. This poster is not a lithograph, but a silkscreen print. Although not technically the same medium, they are both forms of printmaking. Silkscreen printing is a method that began around the early 1900s that could achieve a similar look as lithography. This poster has the same visual themes as Moulin Rouge: La Goulue; flat, neutral colours, curving lines, and fluid poses with the figures. They are both not hyper realistic but also still visible understandable, and are bottom-heavy compositions. The text seen at the top of the print is hand done

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Left: Moulin Rouge: La Goulue, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Lithograph, 1891

Right: Joan Baez and Bob Dylan- East Coast Tour, Eric von Schmidt. Silkscreen, 1965

Punk is Dad, duh.

John Heartfield, Der Dada, 1920. Collage.
John Heartfield, Der Dada, 1920. Collage.

The first piece is a cover by John Heartfield for the Dada movement’s publication ‘Der Dada’. The style for which this belongs, of course, is Dada. Dada originated in Zurich as an anti-war movement. The basic goal of which was to be disruptive and illogical, and to challenge preconceived conventions of art. In this example, Heartfield uses common motifs found in Dada work such as photo-montage and cut-up lettering to create a hectic abstract composition.

Artist unknown, Untitled, 1977. Collage.
Artist unknown, Untitled, 1977. Collage.

The second example is a 1977 poster for a punk show by unknown artist. Though many artists for show posters such as this were not necessarily designers, the punk movement has played an important role in graphic design. Contemporary designs which incorporate do-it-yourself, photocopy montage are most likely influenced by the commonly known punk aesthetic, while also – if only by accident – paying homage to Dada. Here we see a lot of similar things as our Dada cover. There’s photo-montage, cut-up type of all sorts or the ransom note effect and a generally chaotic feel.

Dada and Punk have a similar attitude, fuck the system and challenge everything. In fact, you could really go as far as to say that Punks were the Dadaists of their time, simply expressing themselves in their own way. Where the Dadaists were challenging art as an anti-war protest, punks were challenging music and fashion by exploding in sweaty, loud basements against authoritarianism.  So, it makes sense that the visual elements such as cut-and-paste collage, photo-montage, deconstruction and reconstruction and erratic compositions crossed over.

 

 

Works Cited

Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic Design: A New History 2nd Edition. Yale University Press, Feb. 28, 2012.

Miller, Christopher T. & Bryan Ray Turcotte. Fucked Up + Photocopied: Instant Art of the Punk Rock Movement. Gingko Press Inc., 1999.

Design Inspiration – Aidan Wilkins

Plakatstil or Sachplakat is a form of poster style started by Lucian Bernhard in 1906 and was a popular design style used by the German graphic designers during the early 1900s. It was used for its simple eye-catching text in images and its use of bold flat colours, Plakatstil allowed instant image recognition where the goal of the design was clear so that the viewers would know it immediately. First of all, we have an early use of Plakatstil design done by Hans Rudi Erdt in 1911 this poster for Opel cars. This was a popular poster during the war, it advertises the car brand Opel showing this man who is supposed to be viewed as a driver looking over at the viewer. The posters flat colors and bold text make it clear and noticeable to whoever views it. This was a common characteristic of Plakatstil posters, the posters were clear and concise using bold text and flat colours to get it’s viewers attention quickly. This style has continued to stay relevant and inspire many more artist as time goes on.

For example, this is an image of the Blu-ray cover for the tv show Futurama volume 5 case. It is a clear example of the use of Plakatstil poster design in modern media. The cover of this case uses all the principles of Plakatstil going back to 1906. It shows bold eye-catching lettering, flat clear colours, and it’s clear and concise of what it is showing allowing for instant product recognition. Though there’s almost a hundred years between the two images and inspiration from the first is clear in the newer image. Plakatstil is a very useful design form and was used for countless designs in the past and will be used for countless more in the future.

 

Works cited

McLellan, Lawrence. “Opel Poster (1911) – FGD1 The Archive – Medium.” Medium, FGD1 The Archive, 19 Oct. 2017, medium.com/fgd1-the-archive/opel-poster-3fc909031470.

 

Plakatstil: The Poster Style, International Poster, www.internationalposter.com/style-primers/plakatstil-the-poster-style/.

Blog Post 4: Design Inspiration

19th CE Art Nouveau Movement Influence on 1960’s Psychedelics Poster Art

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             The Psychedelic Art movement began in the mid 1960’s and was highly influenced by the late 19th CE Art Nouveau Movement.  The International style of Art Nouveau demanded artistic freedom, and was inspired by natural forms and structures much like the various posters seen during the Psychedelic Art era. The Art Nouveau design above titled L’Ermitage par designed by Paul Berthon in 1897 shares many similar traits with the Psychedelic poster from Pink Floyds concert which was held in March of 1966. The two posters share similar traits such as “whimsical lines, fluid shapes amalgamating one into another, the female figure with flowers and different ornamental detailing in her hair and on her body, and also the whole mood of the  poster is very playful.”Further more the images share similar charachteristics such as  a limited colour palette, reoccuring patterns and symbols and most of the time includes a very playful and colourful border. Also the lettering used in both movements are very organic, playful and in some way interacts with the main image.

The Psychedelic poster similar to the Art Nouveau poster offers a sense of “laughter, optimism, and mind expanding chatter and the General mood of the pieces could be described as a combination of idealism, hedonism and optimism that eventually exceeded into decadence.” The feelings that these posters had really coincided with hippies and ultimately fused with the 60’s hippie-drug culture. The reason why these posters in the 60’s used similar traits and Art Nouveau qualities was so that when looking at the poster it made you feel like you were on a trip. Because of the drug and hippie culture this really connected with the youth and made them feel like they needed to be at the concert. The posters below are another example of the influence that the Art Nouveau movement had on the 1960s Psychedelic Poster art.

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Works Cited

Muse, Byron. “Posts about Julian Palacios on Byron’s Muse.” Art Nouveau and 1960’s: A Pyschedelic , June 10AD, byronsmuse.wordpress.com/tag/julian-palacios/.