I noticed in our text book we didn’t find many designers that designed or illustrated for the media such as films and shows. Which is important because today’s generation focuses on media and such as. I did some research and got to know Olga Kaljakin. She was a designer, illustrator, graphic designer and an artist “She started off advertising with Petersen Publishing, soon after, she worked as an art director and graphic designer for Seiniger Advertising, Aspect Ratio and Crew Creative” (peoplephill,1). She received many awards and was honored for her motion picture advertising. She created film posters, billboards, newspaper ads, and much more. She was very talented, as well as creative. She was born in 1950 and passed away in 2008. Some of the films were The Last Samurai, Field of Dreams, Moonstruck, The Untouchables and many more. The reason why I think she needs to be in text books is because I feel like she was forgotten. She created many posters for very famous films and she didn’t get the credit she deserves. I believe she was extremely talented, you’ll find some of her work below, these are some of the films she created posters for. Olga Kaljakin had her peek in 1985 to 1997, at this time she created many beautiful posters as well as billboards. Unfortunately, many females are underrated and do not get the credit they deserve. This is why I believe someone like Olga Kaljakin must be recognized for the many art work she’s done. She had a beautiful and unique style to her covers and billboard as shown below. She had a clear hierarchy with clear contrast. I believe we need to learn how the style and trends were in her time so we can implement it today and learn from her work. She was also a loving daughter, a caring mother, and a great sister.
In honor of Olga Kaljakin I came up with a movie title and decided to make a design out of it. I wanted to step out of my comfort zone and try new ideas. I wanted to explore different languages with English so I decided to illustrate and design a cover for a magazine. I used Arabic and a little bit of English. I Believe Olga Kaljakin had her style and was legendary in her work, she deserves to be taught about and students deserve to learn about her and her work.
Metropolis poster designed for the silent film by Fritz Lang known for its futuristic style and special effects. Sci-fi film that conveys dystopian German city. The negative and dark atmosphere of cyberpunk illustration is depicting the depressed mood in a future city. The poster is categorized as an expressionist phase. Dadaism and futurism influenced the worshiping of mechanics, motions, and dynamism. Dada and futurism after WWI influenced this artist to create such an exaggerated dystopian illustration that tweaks the idea of worshiping the machines.
Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic Design: a New History. Yale University Press, 2012
This interview has been translated from the original French transcript to English. The author has gone to great lengths to not only ensure the accuracy of the translation but to also ensure that the spirit of Toulouse-Lautrec’s words is synonymous with his original intent.
Henri, thank you so much for sitting down with us today to talk about your artwork, it’s a great honor. Before we begin, would you like something to drink?
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
Honour? Why yes, let’s toast to the great Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, flunker of the arts! Buggards! Pour me some liquor and let’s get on with it! (Birnholz)
Absolutely, in this day and age, it seems formal teachings are going by the wayside in favour of style. How did you develop your distinct mode of representation, which so precisely manages to capture the essence of your subject with an economical use of line and colour?
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
Economic? Is that what they’re calling it now? What is a style anyway? Your question is akin to asking how a donkey becomes an ass, they are one and the same. Just as I draw and work at my craft, my ‘style’ follows. (Birnholz)
And do not be confused, good sir. My ‘style’ or my ‘mode of representation’ as you so stated in your educated and stuffy manner, is the direct result of formal training.
Oh, to imagine where I would be today without my dear mentors and teachers. Did you know I apprenticed under René Princeteau? The strict and extremely formalistic Léon Bonnat? Bonnat once called my most expressive of sketches ‘atrocious.’ How I miss my dear Bonnat. You know a teacher who provides strict guidelines is often the most beneficial to their pupil. After Bonnat, studying with Fernand Cormon at his now iconic studio – sure, Cormon approved of my artistic endeavours and gave me the opportunity to illustrate the great works of Victor Hugo alongside him. . . but was I learning as I once did under the ever-descending guillotine which represented Bonnat’s cruel judgement? I think not, I think not. . . (Birnholz)
WHERE’S MY DRINK!
Yes, your drink. Right here, this is scotch from the countryside of Scotland. It is a pleasure to drink.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
I will be the judge of that. [takes drink, has a swig] Ahhhhh, not bad.
Great. How about this recent series of lithographs you have published, Elles? How did you decide on your subject matter? Especially a subject widely seen as being taboo, such as brothels and sex workers?
Henri de Toulouse Lautrec:
Simply, I draw what I know best. For instance, I’ve come to know these women quite intimately. Not just as concubines, but as friends, working women, and emotionally complex individuals.
Some people look at the series and think, “Ah, Lautrec is trying to redefine the way we think of sex workers.” But that could not be further from the truth. Do I look like a man who has some great knowledge of sex workers? With my stunted legs, disproportioned body, and altogether atypical frame? If I do look like one who knows the inner workings of sex work, it is surely an unintentional representation. But I do know my friends, and I have great affection for them. And when I draw them, that affection seems to come through. That is what one sees when reflecting on Elles, not sex workers but friends. (Birnholz)
And you distributed these illustrations with the help of lithographs. I’m curious, how have lithographs changed the way you make your artwork?
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
What a question, indeed! Tell me, does an eagle change its flightpath depending on air conditions? How about a shark? Do sharks suddenly lose their affinity for flesh when there’s an abundance of scrumptious coral to feast on? I think not, good sir! And the same goes for lithographs and my artwork. The artwork itself has not changed in the slightest, and why should it? Although, I will grant you this, lithography has allowed me to distribute my work to a much wider range of people. I find that beautiful, very bohemian, a sort of democratization of the artwork, if you will?
Amazing, thank you so much for speaking with us today. It’s been a great honour.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
Yes, yes. Talk, talk, talk. At least the scotch was not half-bad. Salut!
Birnholz, Alan Curtis. “Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 Nov. 2019, www.britannica.com/biography/Henri-de-Toulouse-Lautrec.
“Elles (Portfolio Cover).” Metmuseum.org, The Met, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/334413.
Umberto Boccioni, Unique forms of continuity in space, 1913
Futurism originated from Italy, was a social and artistic movement in the early 20th century. Futurism emphasized speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. I selected Boccioni’s art because this is one of the most symbolic sculpture that represents the six words listed below. His art conveys the speed and dynamic motion. The consistent changes and energy depicted through this restless mechanic human figure.
Zurakhinsky, Michael. “Futurism Movement Overview.” The Art Story, 2020, www.theartstory.org/movement/futurism
For a while now I’ve been obsessed with Islamic calligraphy, it’s been something I’ve been interested in, the Arabic letters can be played with in many ways. The letters are so flexible a word can turn into an image. Islamic calligraphy started off as Arabic calligraphy, Islam hadn’t spread yet or hasn’t excited really, however once Islam came to be people eventually began to write the Quran and that’s when Islamic calligraphy started. “This image shows an example of early cursive writing done by Ibn al-Bawwab.”Eventually calligraphy continued to look like this. However now Islamic/Arabic calligraphy looks like this
“This artist El Seed, takes Arabic calligraphy to the streets, democratizing Art, El Seed takes Arabic calligraphy to the streets, Graffiti.”Arabic takes many forms, which makes it easy to express what one is feeling. The use of colour, font, form and scale makes a massive difference in the feeling and emotion the artist is portraying.
According to the research I’ve done and any image I’ve come across I decided to make a flyer, I used two letters and played with the form of the blue letter, I rearranged the typical straight normal letter to make it look modern yet understandable. I also played with the opacity of the letter in the back to give it emphasis and movement. The flyer is simple not complicated it has the information needed nothing more. The focus is on the letters only.
This flyer is different yet similar, I decided to include the information into the design, it isn’t meant to be analyzed its meant to give you the feeling of something old yet new. The overlapping of words gives the audience an old feeling of type however the colours I used and scale gives you a modern feeling towards it.
Holland, Jacqueline. “A Brief History of Arabic Calligraphy – Skillshare Blog.” Skillshare, Skillshare, 27 Aug. 2018, www.skillshare.com/blog/learn/a-brief-history-of-arabic-calligraphy.
Image 1:Josef Müller-Brockman, Zürich Town Hall Poster, 1955. Poster. Zurich
Image 2: ChungKong, Kill Bill, Minimal Movie poster, 2005
VISD-2006 Graphic Design History 20thCentury
Commonly known as the international style, this style of design originated in the 1940’s through the 50’s. Led by designers Josef Müller-Brockmann at the Zurich School of Arts and Krafts and Armin Hofmann at the Basel School of Design, this style possessed many characteristics such as simplistic, modern, symmetrical, striking and highly favoured eligibility. Swiss style followed the trend of separating graphic design from fine art to grid based design.
These grids are very legible and harmonious, which is perfect for structuring information. Creating hierarchy for content becomes a lot easier using this style, as grids are flexible, consistent and easy to follow. Swiss Style usually involves an asymmetrical layout and sans serif typefaces. Along with this, the combination of typography and image as a means of visual communication, was a prominent theme in the Swiss style. The influential works were usually posters, which were seen to be the most effective means of communication.
The elements that are present within the Zurich town hall poster are also present in one of the many poster designs for Kill Bill. In Image 1, The designer uses a grid to organize the whole content as it is a primary feature in the poster. Although symmetry is a major element in the Swiss style, this asymmetrical layout still fulfills the requirement. The poster is still possess a great sense of unity while displaying the information in a non chaotic manner. Another element is colour. The palettes are very limited when it comes to Swiss style, especially in this example. Blue and white are the only colors used in this poster, and with this striking contrast, it is very effective. Since all of the text has been assigned to one colour, the information is clear to read without any hint of visual competition. These elements applied to the poster made the Zürich Town Hall Poster an example that falls well into the Swiss Style.
Just like the Zurich Town Hall Poster, the Kill Bill poster has adapted these elements as well. It is clear that a grid system was used to design this poster, along with following the theme of an asymmetrical aesthetic. Like the first poster, geometric shapes are used to add symmetry in an asymmetrical layout. This Kill Bill poster also have a limited colour palette of black, yellow and red. Again, with the text being assigned to one colour, this allows for great legibility. The Swiss style has definitely inspired the Kill Bill poster by influencing it used of a grid system, sans serif fonts, minimal elements and unity.
Eskilson, S. J. (2012). Graphic design: A new history. New Haven: Yale University Press.
“Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. Https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.
Tadanori Yooko is one of Japan’s most highly recognized graphic designers and artist. He was originally trained as a painter and worked as a stage designer for a Tokyo based Avante Garde theatre. Tadanoori’s work was often very personal, reflecting his own personal interests. Beginning his graphic design career in the early 1960s, Tadanoori incorporated both eastern and western styles into his work to reflect a collective of Japanese society at the time. Tadanoori’s early work was heavily influenced by ukiyo-e style and the flat colours of pop art; which he incorporated with photography. Because of the major influence of pop art in his work at the time, many referred to him as the “Japanese Andy Warhol”. Towards the late 1960s and early 1970s, Tadanoori grew interest in Indian culture and Bhuddism, incorporated many religious and universal images in his work. He designed many album covers for rock and folk musicians who he became acquainted with through his “spiritual quest”; including the Beatles, Emerson, Lake and Palmers, Carlos Santanas and Cat Stevens. In the 1990s, Tadanoori began incorporating digital design in his work. He even went through his old work and reworked them digitally. A large exhibition of Tadanoori’s work was held in 1998 with over forty thousand in attendance over a thirteen day period. Tadanoori retired working commercially in 1981.
Koshimaki-Osen, 1966 and The Rose-Colored Dance, A La Maison De M. Civecawa 1966
Tadanoori’s work is high personal, even in his commercial work. He incorporates his own personal themes, photographs and references his own anti-modernist style in his work, making it immediately recognizable. His work often teeters between fine art and design, having no limitations or rules in his work, with inspiration from Japan aesthetics, psychedelics, science fiction and spiritualism.
The City and Design, The Wonders of Life on Earth, Isamu Kurita, 1966
Jim Fitzpatrick was an Irish artist whose work included very intricate illustrations, inspired by Celtic methodology; however, his one very famous piece stands apart from his usual artwork he produced. His poster “Viva Che” released in 1968, and has been known as one of the top 10 most iconic images.
Jim Fitzpatrick idolized Guevara and the artist had met Che Guevara himself in 1962 while working at bar. When Fitzpatrick heard of Guevara’s death in Bolivia, he outlined the image of Guevara that was taken by Korda (Fidel Castro’s official photographer) using a process called “line drop” and put the image above a red background. Creating a monotone image with only red and black as the main colors, he drew the star in yellow with a felt-tip pen. The poster became an iconic image of the anti-Vietnamese war protests worldwide and used by many.
In an interview, Jim states that his artwork “Viva che” was making a statement of outrage at the murder of Che Guevara, a Cuban revolutionist and to keep his memory.
Barack Obama’s “HOPE” poster designed by Shepard Fairey in 2008 for Obama’s presidential campaign is another very famous piece of political artwork used by many of his supporters and became the primary image for the campaign.
Like Fitzpatrick’s poster, Fairey has only the face as the focal point to create an impact of a solitary figure with only three colors. Fairey however, added singular words as promise or hope in the poster.
Obama’s gaze, the imagery, simplicity and the two poster’s flat graphic treatment is a strong reminiscent of Jim Fitzpatrick’s Viva Che. As stated by Laura Barton from The Guardian, “…it has acquired the kind of instant recognition of Jim Fitzpatrick’s Che Guevara poster, and is surely set to grace T-shirts, coffee mugs and the walls of student bedrooms in the years to come.”
Guerilla Girls, Naked poster, 1989 vs Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814
The Guerilla Girls used parody – satire to comment on the serious nature and rationale of the original – in their Naked poster, 1989, by appropriating Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres’ Large Odalisque, 1814. They clearly keep the exact pose and body of the woman in the original, but transform her into a grotesque ape. The intention is to manipulate the original as a means of revealing the ugly sexism of art and museums. The use of parody was one of the postmodern art movement’s ways of deconstructing the dominant narratives that been so prevalent in art and design up until the 1980s.
Eggebeen, Janna. VISD-2006: Graphic Design History. 5, Apr. 2019, Ontario College of Art and Design, Toronto. Class lecture.
Emil, Krén, and Daniel Marx. “The Grand Odalisque.” Web Gallery of Art, www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/i/ingres/05ingres.html.
Tate. “’Do Women Have To Be Naked To Get Into the Met. Museum?’, Guerrilla Girls, 1989.” Tate, www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/guerrilla-girls-do-women-have-to-be-naked-to-get-into-the-met-museum-p78793
Tadanori Yokoo is a Japanese graphic designer that came up during the avant-garde era of Japan in the 1960s. He is often compared to Andy Warhol with his bright, pop art like designs (Shiner, “Tadanori Yokoo in Conversation with Eric Shiner.”). He is one of the most famous Eastern-Asian graphic designers and has not only influenced the Japanese graphic design scene but also the American.
Tadanori Yokoo was adopted and raised in an urban Japan setting by an elderly couple. His adoptive parents owned a kimono fabric making company (Corkill, “Tadanori Yokoo: An Artist by Design.”). He had always been interested in drawing as a child and throughout his adolescence naturally gravitated towards graphic design. During his childhood he would copy images and often drew historical characters that he saw in books (Corkill, “Tadanori Yokoo: An Artist by Design.”). His graphic designs where very much inspired by the traditional patterns of the kimonos and he incorporated many of the traditional art and designs of Japan in his work. Many of his graphic designs also showcase images of children’s card games that were played a lot before the war (Corkill, “Tadanori Yokoo: An Artist by Design.”). In many ways he went against modernism with the type of graphic designs he created. Modernism at the time was the most popular and focused on simplicity and function of a design (Corkill, “Tadanori Yokoo: An Artist by Design.”). This made him unique compared to other designers and lead to many works for filmmakers and playwrights.
Yokoo was also taking inspiration from western graphic design and began mixing those elements with his tradition and decorative Japanese elements. His work began to welcome psychedelic and pop art elements. Transitioning him into a style that dubbed him as “The Japanese Warhol” (Shiner, “Tadanori Yokoo in Conversation with Eric Shiner.”). He broke into the American graphic design scene and became a very well known and praised graphic designer; creating designs for albums, posters, magazine covers and advertisements. His perfectly blended style of western and eastern design left him a unique and influential artist. He had been praised and gained critical acclaim (Shiner, “Tadanori Yokoo in Conversation with Eric Shiner.”).
Yokoo would be a great addition to the textbook. It is almost shocking that he isn’t. He is such a well known and influential designer, even in western culture. He has done a lot of work in America and joined the inner circles of top graphic designers. It was even in America where he decided to go from graphic design into fine art and decided to showcase his exhibition in New York. With such great influence and prevalence in graphic design and art, he should definitely be talked about when discussing graphic design history. The textbook’s focus is supposed to be about the history of graphic design, but it mostly focuses of the western and European graphic design culture and scene. It would be much better if the textbook would add more eastern designers to expand the book and showcase a more accurate history of graphic design though a global view.