Significance of Bitmap Icons by Susan Kare – Hyelin Kim

While embracing various realms of graphic designs, I felt that the textbook lacked in delivering significant design advancement in the history of digital technology that gifted us with the convenience of computers and smartphones. Nowadays, all the programs and technologies accompany simple icons that enable us to recognize their function at a glance. To get to this point of cognitive efficiency, Apple’s remarkable graphic designer, Susan Kare, made the greatest contribution by building the basis of iconographic designs.

Kare joined Apple Computer after she received a call from her high school friend, Andy Hertzfeld, the lead software architect for Macintosh at the time, in the early 1980s. Kare started working as the designer for Macintosh’s user interface graphics. Although Kare was inexperienced in computers at the beginning, she was able to accomplish significant achievements throughout her career in Apple.

Susan Kare, Bitmap Icons, 1980s.
Fig. 1 Susan Kare, Bitmap Icons, the 1980s.

The most renowned and appreciated works of her are “bitmap graphic” icons (fig. 1). These simple yet practical images were the core element that granted the Macintosh to be approachable for anyone with less or no experience with the computer. Not only her designs were practical, but they were also enjoyable. Now that this “user-friendly” interface allowed the computers to communicate with the users visually instead of lines of codes, the more approachable it became. Ellen Lupton of Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum remarked that Kare’s icons made people feel “welcome and safe—even when the system crashed and gave [them] a drawing of a bomb,” witnessing the friendliness of Kare’s design (Kindy).

This must have been able as Kare herself loved and enjoyed the characteristics of the bitmap. She mentioned in her interview back in 2000 that the bitmap graphics reminded her of working “needlepoint, knitting patterns or mosaics” (Kindy). She described the process of her bitmap designing as “the marriage of craft and metaphor” (Lange). Like such, her main technique for coming up with the ideas was through connecting the functions with metaphorical images. From a pointing finger functioning for “Paste,” a paintbrush for “MacPaint,” and scissors for “Cut,” many of her icons were efficient and easily associable with its role.

Her love of metaphor and symbolism is also evident in her design of the “command” icon that still lives with us on the left of our space bar. She borrowed the idea from a “Swedish campground sign meaning ‘interesting feature’” (Lange).

Fig. 2 Susan Kare, Typefaces, 1983-84.
Fig. 2 Susan Kare, Typefaces, 1983-84.

Not only Kare contributed to the development of communicative icons but she also was able to give life to many of Mac’s typefaces including Geneva, Chicago, and Cario (fig. 2). She is also responsible for designing other interfaces in different companies like the spinning button used for refreshing or the pinning icon on Pinterest or the cards from Microsoft Windows Solitaire (fig. 3) and more.

Fig. 4 Susan Kare, Microsoft Window Solitaire Cards, 1990.
Fig. 3 Susan Kare, Microsoft Window Solitaire Cards, 1990.

In conclusion, Kare’s great contribution to our digital life by developing the visual communicative language that built the more convenient experiences should be acknowledged in our textbook. Her invention of icons marks historical advancement in both digital technologies and graphic designs.

 

Works Cited

Kindy, David. “How Susan Kare Designed User-Friendly Icons for the First Macintosh.” Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Institution, 9 Oct. 2019, www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/how-susan-kare-designed-user-friendly-icons-for-first-macintosh-180973286/.

Lange, Alexandra. “The Woman Who Gave the Macintosh a Smile.” The New Yorker, 19 Apr. 2018, www.newyorker.com/culture/cultural-comment/the-woman-who-gave-the-macintosh-a-smile.

American comic books: diving into propaganda

Comic books have a rich history in North America. One could say they are a cousin to graphic design, because of their marriage of text and imagery. Despite this, they are not considered in the textbook Graphic Design: A New History, by Eskilson (2019). 

For a kind of graphic design devoured by many a kid, teen, and adult since the 1940’s, comics have had an impressive influence throughout society. In fact, they were used as a vehicle for propaganda during World War II (Scott 57). Captain America comics were introduced in 1941, and in the first issue’s cover the character Captain America is seen punching Adolf Hitler in the face (see figure 1). Issue 58 of Superman toted a cover with a banner stating how war bonds and stamps can help the war effort in America (see figure 2). The patriotic themes and heroism of these comic book characters — those who protect and serve the people of America — were a perfect companion for American propaganda, providing the youth a visceral but appropriate understanding of what a ‘good American’ was, and who their enemies were (Scott 57). 

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Figure 1. Captain America seen here in his first issue, punching Hitler in the face as a good American would.

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Figure 2. Superman shown helping to print out posters about how any American can help the war effort.

The slogans seen in the Superman and Batman comics were a way to encourage average Americans that they too could support the war effort of their people (see figure 2 & 3). These covers denote superheros fighting hard against their enemies or in the war, suggesting that if you were to do as these characters say (buy war bonds and stamps), you would be fighting the war too.

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Figure 3. Batman and Robin on adventures to show Americans how they are helping out their soldiers.

But what if you couldn’t or wouldn’t do these things? Like the posters created to swell patriotic pride for World War I that guilted men into signing up for global fights, these comics provided the dark understanding that if you do not do what these superheroes do, you are unpatriotic and not at all like the beloved superheroes that help out as an American should (see figure 4) (Eskilson 115).

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Figure 4. Savile Lumley’s WWI poster (1915). – Daddy, what did you do in the war?

Comics also disseminated the face of the ugly enemy in a more modern format for youthful readers(Scott 54). Unlike the serious and/or horrifying appearances illustrated for past wartime posters, here were bumbling fools and comically drawn ghouls. Different but similar, the purpose of creating negative (and racist) appearances of enemies was done for the exact same reason it was done in any other way — to sow the concept of good versus evil (ibid.) (see figure 5).

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Figure 5. The Fighting Yank‘s cover depicting racist caricatures of the Japanese army.

In particular, the concept of a patriotically-dressed comic book character was an American invention, providing a way for readers to connect with their country and its ideal beliefs (Scott 56). In line with this, Captain America toted an American flag themed shield and wore an American flag themed body suit (see figure 1). Another hero dressed similarly was Wonder Woman with her red, white, and blue costume with a bald eagle as a chest emblem (see figure 6). To wear the flag would be a clear signal that these characters lived and breathed American values. The bald eagle was yet another signal to viewers of this, and characters would be seen holding one or even, riding one (see figures 6 & 7)!

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Figure 6. Wonder Woman lasso-ing enemies.

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Figure 7. Batman and Robin seen riding a bald eagle – a symbol of American pride and patriotism.

Delving into American comics and their impact on society would be a boon to the textbook. There is a rich history that dips into war-time propaganda specifically aimed at the American youth, as well as a demonstration of patriotic imagery that resounded to the people of the time. Looking into these comics would provide our class another view into the way propaganda was disseminated into different times, that varied from the usual posters and flyers see typically shown in class.

Cord, Scott A.  Comics and ConflictNaval Institute Press, 2014.

Eskilson, Stephen J. Graphic Design: A New History. Yale University Press, 2019.

“Patriotism.” Word War II: Comics and Propaganda,
sites.google.com/site/worldwar2comicbookpropaganda/–patriotism.

 

Seoul 1988 Olympics Designs

Due to the fact that our textbook is heavily focused on Western art history, I suggest that 1988 Seoul Olympics designs and one of the main designers, Kim Hyun to be a part of the textbook to allow students a wider vision and understandings in art history.


 

The Seoul 1988 Olympics was a huge turning point in the modern history of South Korea to significantly improve international reputation. However, shortly after the “Miracle of the Han River,” which was a national economic transformation after the Korean War, the design industry was yet to be fully ready to provide enough resources. The Olympics was when South Korean designers had to face their first international stage without much of preparation.

 

Fortunately, a designer Jo Yeongje suggested the government to form an Olympics design committee and directed the entire Seoul Olympics designs from 1981 to 1988 for seven years once 1988 Olympics was confirmed. The designers who participated in the committee later applied the earned skills and knowledges to their practice, which became a huge jump in Korean design industry. It also enhanced recognition of the power of design, which later allowed designers to be a part of planning division in national projects.

 

 

Seoul 1988 Olympics Logo Logo

The logo was inspired by Korean triskelion, a triple spiral motif consisting of three symmetrical swirls from a single point, to show traditional aesthetics of South Korea in a simplistic modern style. The visual elements are harmonious over all. Bold lines are used to form a circular pattern to echo the clarity of theme.

 

 

Seoul 1988 Olympics MascotMascot

Hodori, is the official mascot of the Seoul Olympics. It’s a simplified tiger figure – the national animal – wearing the logo on his neck, with a traditional hat that is used for a traditional dance on his head. The stylistic choice of the character was to portray the hospitable traditions of Korea in a friendly tone.

 

 

Seoul 1988 Olympics Poste

Poster

20th century Olympics posters were the essence of the contemporary design techniques. Though it was once centered in North America and Europe, starting with 1956 Melbourne Olympics, Olympics designs expanded its diversity adapting regional characteristics and aesthetics. The official poster is an image of a torch runner with diffusing light rays from the Olympics symbol above him.

Seoul 1988 Olympics utilized computer graphics which was considered innovative at that time. Due to technical issues, it was produced as a team unlike these days where most of the graphic work can be done by a single designer. The gradation of the rings were done by Cho Jonghyun , while the glowing rays were done by a Japanese designer, Kenda Etsuo. The torch runner was photographed by Hyungu Yu.

 

Designer, Kim Hyun

Seoul 1988 Olympics Mascot SketchSeoul 1988 Olympics sketch

“To me, design is a process of self-identification.”

Kim Hyum was born in Seoul, 1949. He designed Seoul Olympics mascot in 1988, then designed Daejeon Expo mascot in 1991. He founded a design company in 1984, later creating logos for LG, GS, BC card, and the Korean Constitutional court.

He won the design competition of the Seoul Olympics mascot Hodori, eventually became one of the most important figures in Korean design industry. Hodori was thoroughly supported by the government and was loved by the citizens. A variety of goods were produced including cartoons, animation and even a bank plan named after the mascot.

Seoul Olympics Committee opened a public competition for a national symbol to design the mascot. Few of the national preferences included magpie, Korean Jindo dog, and rabbit but the final winner was Siberian tiger that is more suitable to illustrate dynamic movements with.

Hodori is a simplified Siberian tiger character, designed after the official national animal. The curved outlines deliver delicacy, and the Olympics medal on its neck represents its identity as a mascot. Based in the original version, designers created 7 different traditions versions and 19 different Korean alphabets versions which have supported to inform the international audience about the nation.

As a side story, the final competitors were Siberian tiger and rabbit. Though the Olympics committee secretly wanted rabbit to be selected since the international reputation over Korean government was very centered on the fact that it was a military government, which the docility of rabbits can offset. However, tiger was chosen in 1982 by the government officials.

 

Sources

Esquire. “김현은 누구인가: 에스콰이어 코리아 (Esquire Korea).” ESQUIREKOREA, Esquire, 15 May 2018, www.esquirekorea.co.kr/article/36236.

Segye Wa Hamkke Nanun Hanguk Munhwa: Sangong Kang Sin-Pyo Ollimpik Munhwa Haksul Undong = Korean Culture and Seoul Olympic Studies: Kang, Shin-Pyo: His Olympic Movement. Kungnip Minsok Pangmulgwan, 2010.

디자인 월간. “디자인 40년 회고전 연, 김현.” DESIGN, 25 Jan. 2010, mdesign.designhouse.co.kr/article/article_view/103/50758?per_page=76&sch_txt=.

 

 

The Art Of Chinese Propaganda/ Posters in Cultural Revolution_Xinyi Mao

In the past five hundred years, Western culture has great influence on the world. Western culture has occupied an important position in world culture. In the past ten years, traditional Chinese culture has once again been valued by people, and various types of “Chinese elements” have been applied to modern graphic design. The design with traditional Chinese cultural elements has a unique charm of oriental culture and is a valuable asset of oriental culture. It can not be replaced by other art elements. It records down the long history of Chinese and spreads it for a long time. At the same time, it has gradually brought about a diversified design trend in international design and has a certain influence. Since ancient times, the West and China have a close relationship in visual culture.

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Picture retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/44hl41NY7Mb4Jx4tPJpzwty/seeing-red-the-propaganda-art-of-china-s-cultural-revolution

In 1920, The Russian Constructivists revolutionized the posters by using photo-montage and bold geometric form(Victoria and Albert Museum). This promoted the development and export of poster propaganda in World War I. Soon, this particular way spread around the world . It has affected the development and innovation of published art in many countries and regions. In 1930. China and other places have also been affected by this new style prints(Victoria and Albert Museum).

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Picture retrieved from: www.sohu.com/a/161520035_772189.

In 1949, the Cultural Revolution broke out. This was an important proletarian revolutionary movement lead by the Chairman Mao Zedong in Chinese history (Sayej). The starting point is to against capitalism and to develop China’s own road to building Socialism (Sayej). However, his miscalculation of the political situation of the party and country caused a serious mistake. This revolution has brought important changes to China’s development. It is a memorable memory in Chinese history (Burgess). During the Cultural Revolution, many political thinkers and traditional artists were severely and cruelly criticized and restricted and even imprisoned by the people and the government (BBC Arts). At the same time, the government was trying to unify the people’s minds through new visual cultural communication methods (BBC Arts). One of the most representative of that period was the revolutionary poster propagandas. Propaganda posters belong to the category of posters and originate from posters and advertisements. However, unlike posters, the main purpose of posters is use for commercial, and the propaganda posters are mainly for political services. For example, celebrating worker labor, preaching soldiers, industrial progress, and praising Chairman Mao(BBC Arts). At that time, a large number of posters with Soviet socialist realism illustration style inspired poster propaganda were produced on a large scale. The purpose was for the government to try to sell ideology to the people, thereby indirectly achieving politicized control and silent violence (Sayej). Looking back on the history of the Chinese revolution, the posters played an important role in the revolutionary movement and war. Especially during the Cultural Revolution, the government pushed the production and dissemination of posters to the extreme. The role of publicity is even more irreplaceable. The Cultural Revolution posters recorded people’s profound memories for a period of time.

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 Picture retrieved from: www.sohu.com/a/161520035_772189.

Work Cited

Burgess, Anika. “The Art of Chinese Propaganda Posters.” Atlas Obscura, 23 Feb. 2018, www.atlasobscura.com/articles/chinese-propaganda-posters-cultural-revolution-shaomin-li.

Brown, Evan Nicole. “These Vibrant Posters Track the Rise of China’s Economic Might.” Fast Company, Fast Company, 28 Feb. 2020, www.fastcompany.com/90469107/these-vibrant-posters-track-the-rise-of-chinas-economic-might.

“V&A · A Short History of the Poster.” Victoria and Albert Museum, www.vam.ac.uk/articles/a-short-history-of-the-poster.

Sayej, Nadja. “The Sleeping Giant: How Chinese Posters Pushed Products and Propaganda.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 26 Feb. 2020, www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/feb/26/the-sleeping-giant-how-chinese-posters-pushed-products-and-propaganda.

“Seeing Red: The Propaganda Art of China’s Cultural Revolution.” BBC Arts, BBC, www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/44hl41NY7Mb4Jx4tPJpzwty/seeing-red-the-propaganda-art-of-china-s-cultural-revolution.

“红色宣传画,一代人的记忆!.” 1 Aug. 2017, www.sohu.com/a/161520035_772189.

 

 

Ethel Reed, Mee Sung Park

Ethel Reed was born in 1874 in Newburyport Massachusetts. She moved to Boston in the 1890s where she achieved international recognition for her posters. Just within two years, she produced book illustrations, cover designs, and more than 25 posters (Wright 2015) While she was in Newburyport, she was influenced by Laura Coombs Hills, a local artist. Later, in Boston, she also studied at the cowls Art School. Her artworks noticed immediately that there was some resemblance to Aubrey Beardsley’s work during the Art Nouveau (Pedersen 2013). Most of her posters contain a solitary female figure often reading a book, with a billowing gown. The figures seem to be in a meditative mood, but at the same time they are subtly erotic figures (Pedersen 2013). One of her most iconic posters is the Folly or Saintliness in 1895. It features a strong contrast of black and orange with a bold serif title.

Posters have been the fundamental field of graphic design in the past and present world. The textbook starts with Art Nouveau and poster designs. There are many designers and artworks that are mentioned in the book. However, most of them, in fact almost everyone featured in the book is males. It would be nice to mix up the ratio and add variety to the content by introducing more female artists and designers of the past. Although Ethel Reed had a very short career in the field, I think she would be one of many ideal female figures to add to the book. Reed had very little influence, instead, she has boldly invented a method of her own purpose toward poster design. She was raised in a poor family and practically self-taught all techniques and was able to produce such charming posters and gain recognition at such a young age of twenty-one.

Works Cited
Pedersen, Nate. “The Beautiful Poster Lady: An Interview with William S         Peterson about Ethel Reed.” Fine Books & Collections, 2 July 2013, www.finebooksmagazine.com/blog/beautiful-poster-lady-interview-william-s-peterson-about-ethel-reed.
Wright, Helena E. “Ethel Reed and the Poster Craze.” National Museum of American History, 22 May 2015, americanhistory.si.edu/blog/ethel-reed.

 

Breaking Stereotypes

Jin Kim

While approaching Graphic Design: A New History and exploring a lot of historical significance of established graphic designers in the past, the content overall tends to focus on the history and art knowledge. We all know that it is extremely important to learn and look over the designers who have been aesthetically inspiring over the countries. However, the book itself often lacks provoking readers’ creativity as it regularly consists of the history of designers and art movement/technique. 

 

I instead often consider graphic designers need to think about concrete stereotypes that exist in this modern world, which have put them into certain shapes. These stereotypes, which have been created from the past have somewhat made barriers in people’s lives and limited them from special and unique ideas. We as a society, believe in these stereotypes subconsciously and follow it as if they are a set of rules. Stereotypes have made factions in society, where many of us are judgemental and criticize others based on how they dress, what music they listen to, what they eat, what religion they believe in, how they even look, and what values they cherish.

 

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Yang Liu – East meets West

Stereotypes limit our perspectives, in the way we think and see things. For those who embrace stereotypes, often ignore new, creative ideas, and only follow what they always have believed in. One of the great examples of graphic design that challenges stereotype by Yang Liu provokes what west and east people hold in their thoughts. People say that designers need to think differently, however it has not been easy to be creative and unique due to our prejudiced mindsets.

 

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Yang Liu – Man meets Woman

People often say that man who does housework is modern and gentle, while woman doing housework is a natural thing as a housewife. Whether it is about the basis of sex, gender identity, race and ethnicity, age, and so forth, those minor standpoints definitely affect the way of designers’ thinking.

In the book called, The Little Prince, the little prince shows his drawing to people that looks like a brown hat. Although everyone is convinced that it is a brown hat, it is actually a picture of a boa digesting an elephant in the little prince’s perspective. Different point of views make different answers. It seems as common stereotype that people focus on the appearance of things and ignore what is inside. It is always difficult to see things underneath the materialistic and surface-based society we are. With narrow mindsets, it stunts our creativity and growth as a graphic designer.

Works Cited

“East vs West: Cultural Stereotypes Explained in 10 Simple Pictograms.” CNN, Cable News Network, 1 Oct. 2015, www.cnn.com/style/article/east-meets-west-pictographs/index.html?gallery=//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150921130216-east-meets-west-perception.jpg.

Wei, Xing. “Gender Stereotypes Cleverly Summarized In Bright, Minimalist Pictograms.” DesignTAXI.com, designtaxi.com/news/368680/Gender-Stereotypes-Cleverly-Summarized-In-Bright-Minimalist-Pictograms/.

Blog post 2:New generation Chinese graphic designer- Hai Huang

Teng Wang

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Blog post 2
When we reading the graphic history book, we are inspired by the different designer in their own time period, they represent the history and different art styles. Also, when look at the works from different countries, we can learn a lot from different culture and different way of thinking. However, when I read the book, I found that the Chinese graphic art was very rare. China got 5000 years history and Chinese are proud of that, the culture behind China are becoming the art style of Chinese graphic design. So today I want to introduce a Chinese graphic design, Hai Huang.

Huang’s work
Huang’s work

Huang is a Chinese new generation designer. After he finished university study, he starts to work at an advertisement company. In 2007 he designed a famous movie’s poster, “Sun rise again as usual”. This work made him become famous and he start to design different movie poster. In China many movie’s posters look same, the designer just places every character in the poster by their importance order. But his work has changed everything.

Poster of “Golden Age”
Poster of “Golden Age”
The poster of “The Grandmaster”
The poster of “The Grandmaster”
Poster of “Master in the forbidden city”
Poster of “Master in the forbidden city”
Poster of “Master in the forbidden city”
Poster of “Master in the forbidden city”

Because I’m crazy about movie so I collected many movie posters, many of them looks normal but Huang’s work is different. In his work he presents the style of movie by special structure and typography. One of the things that makes his special is his understanding of Chinese art and culture. For example, in his work “Golden Age” poster, the grey shapes are part of Chinese letter, because this movie is talk about the Chinese writer in 20th, their books made them fate become sad and tragic. So, these letters or words (you can understand as the things that they write) can be seen as a cage or prison. The small size figure inside shows the weak of a single person. Also, the golden title creates a color contrast. Moreover, in the poster of “the grandmaster”, Huang kept the poster in black and white so it fits the Chinese Tai Chi and Chinese ink style (Guo, Peng &Tang 2015). This movie is talking about the traditional Chinese culture by Kungfu. So, Huang has successfully caught the main idea that the movie wants to present. The 2 main characters looks static (stop), but their action has created the sense of movement. Also, the way of silhouette makes the poster looks more literary and mystic. Actually these 2 figures are all super movie stars, but he didn’t put the close up of their faces, he believed the idea behind the work is more important that the actor. this makes his work special. Also, in the poster of “Master in the forbidden city”, He decreased the size of figure and increase the main idea of the movie- master of repairing historic stuffs. The figure become a part of the object; this means that these people spend their entire life on these things. In his work it is hard to find the close up of famous character, this is also because in Chinese art the works should be implicit.

In Chinese culture we have an idea that art should have some deep meaning under its surface, it is not very good if a work is very flat. This works as well in some poems and cultural works. Huang worked with this idea very well. He thinks that every movie has a world, and the poster is to open a window to see the world. If it is just graphic design and no content, it is not enough to attract people who want to see the movie itself. I think this is right in the modern society with highly commercial atmosphere and fast food culture. People can learn about other country’s culture and style by modern art as poster.

 

Work cited:
Guo, F., Peng, H. and Tang, J. (2015), A novel method of converting photograph into Chinese ink painting. IEEJ Trans Elec Electron Eng, 10: 320-329. doi:10.1002/tee.22088

Chinese Posters During the Revolution

Ruoyi Fei 3172694

From 1950 to the 1980s, propaganda posters were an important vehicle for the communist country to convey its message to the Chinese people, promising enlightened leadership and concerted efforts to achieve a new and better society.

Posters are printed paper announcement or advertisement that is exhibited publicly. Whether promoting a product, an event, or a sentiment (such as patriotism), a poster will immediately catch the attention of the passerby. (Britannica Academic,1)

From 1950 to the 1980s, propaganda posters were an important vehicle for the communist country to convey its message to the Chinese people, promising enlightened leadership and concerted efforts to achieve a new and better society. Posters are printed paper announcement or advertisement that is exhibited publicly. Whether promoting a product, an event, or a sentiment (such as patriotism), a poster will immediately catch the attention of the passerby. (Britannica Academic,1) China's cultural revolution produced thousands of powerful social and political posters that informed the Chinese people of the sweeping changes in Chinese society. These colourful images of cultural celebrations, industrial development, agricultural production and revolutionary heroes are displayed in homes and public places across the country.(Cushing,1) Posters with Chinese characteristics painted the faces of the yellow people, honest and hard-working people, pugnacious military workers, or high-spirited political leaders. These poster designers come from different backgrounds, classes and characters, such as college teachers and students, traditional Chinese painters, folk artists and advertising designers. The designers are directed by communist party officials in studios that can produce the required images quickly and in large quantities. The reality of Chinese life is rarely the poster image of progress and affluence; In real life, popular support for the communist party, its leaders and its policies, and condemnation of its enemies may not be as wholehearted as in the poster world. Instead, the posters offer a glimpse of an unfulfilled future and an ideal that has since been abandoned by the Chinese leadership and replaced by a distinctive form of Chinese capitalism. The power and scope of the poster campaign are of great historical significance. Their unique style was the people's respect for communism at that time. The history of this period is of great significance to China and has paved the way for China's future political structure. So the propaganda of that period was also very significant. More than that, the Chinese posters have diplomatic significance. Many of the posters were inspired by the Soviet Union and showed the friendship between China and the Soviet Union. Even after China and the Soviet Union split, the art culture was innocent, beautiful art has been passed down to this day, and even influenced the propaganda posters in North Korea. Posters are a perfect medium to promote patriotic feelings.(The Guardian,1) In conclusion, the propaganda posters of China in that period had a great influence both on the national and international level, and their artistic characteristics were also very distinct, which was worth learning from the history of graphic design.

Warriors love reading Chairman Mao’s books most, 1966

 

China’s cultural revolution produced thousands of powerful social and political posters that informed the Chinese people of the sweeping changes in Chinese society. These colourful images of cultural celebrations, industrial development, agricultural production and revolutionary heroes are displayed in homes and public places across the country.(Cushing,1)Posters with Chinese characteristics painted the faces of the yellow people, honest and hard-working people, pugnacious military workers, or high-spirited political leaders.

These poster designers come from different backgrounds, classes and characters, such as college teachers and students, traditional Chinese painters, folk artists and advertising designers.

The designers are directed by communist party officials in studios that can produce the required images quickly and in large quantities.

The reality of Chinese life is rarely the poster image of progress and affluence; In real life, popular support for the communist party, its leaders and its policies, and condemnation of its enemies may not be as wholehearted as in the poster world. Instead, the posters offer a glimpse of an unfulfilled future and an ideal that has since been abandoned by the Chinese leadership and replaced by a distinctive form of Chinese capitalism.

The power and scope of the poster campaign are of great historical significance. Their unique style was the people’s respect for communism at that time. The history of this period is of great significance to China and has paved the way for China’s future political structure. So the propaganda of that period was also very significant. More than that, the Chinese posters have diplomatic significance. Many of the posters were inspired by the Soviet Union and showed the friendship between China and the Soviet Union. Even after China and the Soviet Union split, the art culture was innocent, beautiful art has been passed down to this day, and even influenced the propaganda posters in North Korea. Posters are a perfect medium to promote patriotic feelings. (The Guardian,1)

In conclusion, the propaganda posters of China in that period had a great influence both on the national and international level, and their artistic characteristics were also very distinct, which was worth learning from the history of graphic design. 

 

 

works cited

 

“Chinese Propaganda Poster Project”, University of Victoria. https://www.uvic.ca/library/featured/collections/about/Chinese-Propaganda-Posters.php. University of Victoria

Cushing, Lincoln and Ann Tompkins, Chinese Posters: Art from the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2007.

“Poster.” Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 8 Feb. 2020. academic-eb-com.ocadu.idm.oclc.org/levels/collegiate/article/poster/61040. Accessed 6 Apr. 2020.

The Sleeping Giant: how Chinese posters pushed products and propaganda, The Guardian.26 Feb.2020. The Sleeping Giant: how Chinese posters pushed products and propaganda.

Warriors love reading Chairman Mao’s books most, 1966

The Chinese style of film poster- Blog Post2 – Yimeng Li

In our textbook: graphic design a new history, there is an introduction to film posters of different cultures in different periods. New technology has promoted the development of the film industry, and movie posters are the reproduction of popular art, which is an important art for people. We can see the way in which the existing technology can be combined with the new technology. There is a section in our textbook that mentions Chinese film posters. It introduces some socialist realistic posters from the early 1960s and some contemporary posters designed by one of the greatest poster designers Huang Hai. I think the Chinese style of Chinese film posters also deserves to be introduced and added.

Chinese-style film posters are based on traditional Chinese culture and use Chinese elements to create a design style that combines tradition and modernity. For example, the poster of the film “I repaired cultural relics in the Palace Museum” makes use of Chinese historical relics and combines traditional Chinese calligraphy to convey the spirit of craftsmen in the film and bring the audience into the space and time of the film with Chinese style.palace1

The Chinese style often uses a large area of white space to highlight the traditional, simple temperament. At the same time, it is also very common to see the use of white space to focus on the main expression of the place and leave the audience’s imagination space. Ink painting, landscape painting, fine brushwork and photos with ancient buildings and cultural relics are common elements in the Chinese style poster because these elements can bring a strong Chinese style to the whole poster. Traditional Chinese colors are often used in the design of the Chinese style poster. In the ancient Chinese traditional chromatographic system, the color department is relatively calm, and the use of color saturation is always not too high. Generally, in the process of color matching, the color will be matched with the general tone to create a more unified atmosphere for the whole poster. There is also an example of foreign movie posters incorporating Chinese style. The Chinese style poster design of “venom” adopts the technique of ink painting, which is easy to be dizzy,  using the grey and black color of the ink, presenting the attitude of the venom in an incisive and vivid way in the form of fainting, and has the extremely visual tension.

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At the same time, the choice of text is extremely exquisite. Chinese calligraphy font is a unique art form of Chinese characters. Different writing methods of the same character convey the different spirit and artistic conception, which makes Chinese characters of high artistic and aesthetic value. In Chinese style posters, there is no fixed composition format, so after knowing some basic composition formats, we can use it to make posters with Chinese style.

WORK CITED:

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https://p2.ifengimg.com/2018_45/2413ddc4-38ae-40df-b55a-a473bcd905cb_5163BABD98768FA8D23764851870B42CC6958A8E_w1800_h1103.jpg

Infographics

Infographics

By Calista Lynn

Infographics have long been aiding visual learners through its representation of data (Featherstone). Infographics assemblage text, numbers, charts, graphs, maps, and characters to display data in a visually accessible argument (Featherstone). In the 1980s, infographics were used in newsletters, newspapers, magazines, and reports to support a story, but they also have an extensive history in medicine and particular epidemiology (Siricharoen, Featherstone). Infographics were popularized in newspapers in part thanks to Peter Sullivan, a graphic designer who used infographics in his work for The Sunday Times from 1970s to the 1990s (Siricharoen).

Peter Sullivan. Zeebrugge ferry disaster. March 1987.

Tableau de L’Histoire Universelle is one example of an early infographic from Paris (Rogers). It was published in 1858 to illustrate the history of humankind starting with the creation of Adam and Eve (Rogers). Individual cultures are depicted as rivers in this visualization (Rogers).

Unknown. Tableau de L’Histoire Universelle. 1858.

Instead of just assisting a story, today more and more infographics take the primary narrative (Siricharoen). In the digital age, infographics find a greater place in circulating information (Siricharoen). They are able to display the same information but in a visual way that is quicker and more successful at conveying information to the masses (Featherstone). Research data often gets forgotten in scholarly publications (Featherstone). These days many of us first hear of news through different social media platforms. As hundreds of things compete for our attention daily, we need things to immediately catch our eye for us to pay attention (Siricharoen). One study shows that visual tweets, such as those with photos or videos, get more online mentions and generate more media traffic than text-based messages (Featherstone).

Some ways that infographics have been modernized is through the use of 3D rendering and animation or GIFs (Siricharoen). Jing Zhang is an example of a successful contemporary graphic designer and illustrator who uses these techniques in her infographics.

Jing Zhang, Starwood Infographic, 2015
Jing Zhang. Starwood Infographic. 2015.

Infographics are a significant form of graphic design as they require a great amount of information to be communicated in a visually efficient way. I hope to see more people utilizing infographics as they make complex information not only accessible and easy to read, but also enjoyable (Siricharoen).

Citations

     Featherstone, Robin. “Visual Research Data: an Infographics Primer.” Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association / Journal De L’Association Des Bibliothèques De La Santé Du Canada, vol. 35, no. 3, 2014, p. 147., doi:10.5596/c14-031.

Gadney, Max. “Training the Big Guns.” Eye Magazine, 2012, www.eyemagazine.com/feature/article/training-the-big-guns.

“Jing Zhang Illustration.” Jing Zhang Illustration, www.mazakii.com/Portfolio.

Rogers, Simon. “Infographics Old and New: Top Data Visualisations, in Pictures.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 16 Mar. 2012, www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2012/mar/16/infographics-data-visualisation-history.

Siricharoen, Waralak V. “Infographics: The New Communication Tools in the Digital Age.” Research Gate, Sept. 2013, www.researchgate.net/profile/Waralak_Siricharoen/publication/256504130_Infographics_the_new_communication_tools_in_digital_age/links/0c9605232e6f666b1f000000.pdf?disableCoverPage=truewww.researchgate.net/profile/Waralak_Siricharoen/publication/256504130_Infographics_the_new_communication_tools_in_digital_age/links/0c9605232e6f666b1f000000.pdf?disableCoverPage=true.