Category Archives: Reading Response 1 (May 19)

Reading response 1 najin lim

1. How does quaranta position the computer as a medium? What is its most important aspects in his opinion?

Nowdays, computer or internet is a new way of reaching and creating something new. It is a new ideas to present the art in whole new concept, computer or the internet can be shared with anyone around the world and they can view with their own selection. So it’s viewers choice of either see the work on online or at gallery. It makes whole lot of difference in the environment for viewing the work, but computer could make it easier for everyone.


2. What is difference between the motivation of the movement and the current agenda of artist and designers making online content today? is a new way of viewing art and also for presenting by the artists. Many artist uses online to show their abilities also online portfolios through the internet, it’s not a surprise thing to have their own webspace. How the is now the biggest source to see and show the art work, as development of the internet , more and more poeple could emerge to public easily.

Now, everyone has their own space, such as instagram or face. Anyone can be a photographer, writer and even more. They upload images, write about it and people see it. Anyone can create a content about something new everyday. These ideas are almost connected, how they got the ideas from other and become to another new work. Things are expending and getting bigger from original work to new work, it’s like never ending creation.


3. Although McClous’s analysis of sequential narrative is based on the idea of pannels in comic page, how could the ideas he’s presented apply to the aesthetic of browser window and wire frames?

Comic pannel and browser’s tap are similar idea with webpage, as you read the comic book, in the frame contains images and sentence that supports what is going on. On the web, hyperlink act same, They helps to supports about the topic.

Tap on the internet browser is like a frame on the comic book. In a frame or pannel, there are thing that helps people to understand what’s going on also shift of the time of certain moment.  How the viewer can jump one frame to another frame, they can jump time to time by reading. It’s like similar idea with the browser, opening new tap and also going back to front of the page.

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Reading Response 1 – Michael Montana

How does Quaranta position the computer as a medium?

Quaranta states that the position of the computer as a medium is an effective way to communicate information across a large audience. As it does not have to rely on the standard way of presenting artwork on white walls. As Quaranta quotes from Jodi, the pioneer of, “that when a viewer looks at our work, we are inside his computer…[a]nd we are honored to be in somebody’s computer”. Having work online can be seen as a more intimate experience as one can view at on their personal screens.

What is its most important aspect in his opinion?

Computers were no longer just a device that can create art but also a means to deliver it. For when the internet became more accessible it was a way tov”bypass any system of selection”. As the internet can address viewers directly, “making their way into their computer screens and using them like a Trojan horse to break into their minds”. Viewers would be more involved in the experience rather than being a “simple user”.

What are the differences between the motivations of the movement and the current agenda of artists and designers making online content today?

In terms of motivation, the movement and the current agenda of artists and designers had not changed too drastically. As they both use the internet as a tool to present their artworks to a large audience and creating a personal experience for the user. However, the aesthetic and intentions are “different”. This being that it is almost as if current artists and designers use the internet as a platform similarly to how artists display their artwork in a gallery. An example would be such sites like Vimeo, YouTube, Deviant Art etc. Websites are being used as “white walls” for artworks to be displayed on. The format to which websites are made are, for the most part, are incredibly similar. As the site consists of the same elements, a menu bar that would be located on the top, bottom, left or right of the page, the content in the middle, search bar, a header, footer and maybe a logo. However in the movement, due to its dadaist influence, the composition of the page was much more random. Arguably the way that current websites are made are a more structured.



screenshot of WordPress post page, taken 19-05-15 23:13



screenshot of G33.K CON.CEPT R, taken 19-05-15 23:27


However, that isn’t to say that “internet art” is dead, it is still evolving and many artists are taking advantage of new technology. This being free open source 3D programs or data moshing etc.

Although McCloud’s analysis of sequential narrative is based on the idea of panels in a comic page, how could the ideas he’s presented apply to the aesthetic of browser windows and wireframes?

In McCloud’s analysis of the sequential narrative in comic pages can directly apply to the way the “user” navigates through a website. Similarly to how a viewer of a comic determines which panel in a comic is currently the present, can be applied to the first tab that will be accessed. In a sense a user/viewer will navigate a page similar to how they read, left to right or up and down. This being that the way that pages are accessed can be seen similar to a timeline. The main page can be seen as the first panel in a comic page and every sub page can be seen as the future panels.

However, the way the wire frame of the website s planned is not the only idea that can be present from McCloud’s analysis. The way that motion is perceived in comics can also create a sort of hierarchy in a page. As in motion is sequential and in a web browser can create a sort of experience for the user, leading the eye from one page to another, like the animate of a splash page or a tab.



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Reading Response #1 – Jacqueline Carlos

How does Quaranta position the computer as a medium? What is its most important aspect in his opinion?

Quaranta sees the computer as it’s own seperate medium which can spearhead a revolution in the art world. The platform of the computer as a medium creates never ending copies. It bypasses a third party distributor and allows the artist to viewer relationship to be direct, unlike before; the computer created its own medium of delivery. Whilst changing the way maker and receiver interacted, it also broke down the walls of accessibility, creating a new way to reach a different audience. Web art could bring the original to the viewer, there was no question of authenticity but there was also a loss of value in its copy number. Art mediated by screen opened up possibilities for the concept of Marshall McLuhan’s global village, where the internet brought world wide exhibitionists together.

But I believe that Quaranta’s most important aspect of the computer as a medium is it’s ability to split and join people from seeing art online in its true form and those who want to legitimize it by reproducing it in a tangible manner. The shift in attitude of art viewers from being connected through their personal computer and the gallery-goer sharing the same intentions is attributed to The computer has naturalized untouchable books (the kindle), labour (crowdsourcing) and money (direct banks; Tangerine Bank) but god forbid there being value in art not for your walls. Quaranta sees the web as a catalyst for change to an “information age” way of thinking.


What are the differences between the motivations of the movement and the current agenda of artists and designers making online content today?

The motivations of the movement and current agenda of artist and designers making online content today differ in the way that the movement closely mirrored fundamentals of those involved in dadaism. The narrative constructs of “overlap, intersect and contradict” but the historic legend remains. There is an aura to the motivaiton of net.artists, there is a constructed mythology behind its legend. The legend was a collective invention and the name stumbled upon, it pulled from Duchampian attitude and fed of experimentation. It created a birth and death for itself in its own legend unlike the current agenda of online artists and designers who use the web as a platform for distribution of their unlimited copies. The understanding that the computer as a platform for spearheading revolution is lost in today’s online artists.


Although McCloud’s analysis of sequential narrative is based on the idea of panels in a comic page, how could the ideas he’s presented apply to the aesthetic of browser windows and wireframes?

The aesthetic of a browser work as the panels of a comic in the way that it is like sequential art or “juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence”. McCloud explains how time and motion are filled in blanks in our minds between panels or between scrolls of a page. The words introduce time and exist in sound as translated in webpages. A webpage can capture a moment and hold it as the online designer sees fit. The properties of a single continuous image and webpage match a single moment yet have no fixed meaning. The idea that a webpage part of a site act as panels suggests that time is being divided for you, there is intention in the layout, there is intention in your experience. McCloud’s analysis of the sequential narrative translates to webpages in its focus of duration and user experience.

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Response #1 – Jack Lambermont

Quaranta sees the computer as a medium for a piece of art to reside in, rather than a delivery system for a representation of the piece. He speaks to the potential for distribution and collaboration in virtual space, but more importantly, how the intangible nature of art on a computer screen does not necessarily take away from its “aura”, so long as the art is crafted for a specifically digital experience. It is also worth noting that he does not promote net art as a solution the the problems with traditional platforms for art distribution, but rather as a jumping off point and a place for artists to look in the future.

The most important aspect of his position is his belief that net art did not “die out”, despite its most militant supporters loosening or abandoning its strictly anti-gallery philosophy. Quaranta’s optimism for the values held by net art pioneers to be carried on in the art world is an important thing to take away from his introduction.


The main difference I see between and modern online art content I have encountered is the current emphasis on making art that is about the internet, (its aesthetic, culture), rather than being a work that can only be experienced on and because of the internet. The reason for this, I would think, might have to do with the youngness of the internet in the heyday of With the spread of a new technology comes a honeymoon period, in which many people are excited to capture its potential and attempt to explore it conceptually. Years down the line, assisted by the fast pace of our consumption, millennials are already ready to gaze back nostalgically and ironically on the history of the web, and explore it from a the perspective of an individual who has always known and even taken for granted internet access.


Jon Rafman, 2015


The result is art that critiques the history and effects of the internet, rather than its potential as a medium.



McCloud’s representation of the above comic panels are a disturbingly accurate prediction of the nonlinearity of web navigation. The user’s ability to let his/her eye wander, and make intuitive decisions for how he/she would like his/her experience to progress is an essential part of web experience, though this is beginning to be challenged. The algorithms of major websites such as facebook, youtube, ect. are crafted to allow for perceived freedom while still guiding the user through a path of content where the nonlinearity is arbitrary and does not effect the end goal, much like television. In a sense the reverse of what is predicted in the comic above is becoming a reality.

Screen Shot 2015-05-19 at 7.03.14 PM

Rather than film and television adapting nonlinear form, the internet is arguable becoming more linear for many users.

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Reading Response 1: Stephanie Blazevic

1. How does Quaranta position the computer as a medium? What is its most important aspect in his opinion?

At the very least, the Internet can be used as an inexpensive means of getting your work out into the world to be viewed. Artists no longer have to go through the tedious process of acquiring gallery space. They can make themselves known on their own terms through webspace.

Quaranta expresses the idea that even those who wouldn’t acknowledge web pieces as art still used the internet to expand their own work, using it to look up pieces relating to a topic they wish to explore, or looking deeper into another artists work. The internet has made art accessible to everyone, no matter how indirect the experience may be. Its made way for ridiculous pieces of work that may only be considered art by a few individuals.

Quaranta brings up the idea that some people may be rooted in the past, where they desire to have a physical, tangible piece of work that they can hang on their wall and look up at everyday. He argues that this is no longer the only way art works. The blending of art and non-art, original or copy is an evolution of the art community. One which cannot be fought off, and should instead be embraced.

2. What are the differences between the motivations of the movement and the current agenda of artists and designers making online content today?

Net.Art was greatly influenced by Dadaism. Like the Dadaists, Net.Artists wanted to puh the boundaries of what could be called art, however they had a different approach to it. Rather than do simple cut-out collages and piece together structural elements into one final statue or sculpture, they were more interested in complexity. Much of art today can be seen merely as online portfolios, and artist websites. Other than these, they have become a little more interactive, with a narrative and an end goal to achieve, or a cohesive story.

3. Although McCloud’s analysis of sequential narrative is based on the idea of panels in a comic page, how could the ideas he’s presented apply to the aesthetic of browser windows and wireframes?

Scott McCloud refers to the comic strips as being a way to observe the past present and future of a story at any time you desire. There is always a way to look back and review previous pages or to jump ahead and read what’s next. When it comes to browsers you can almost do the same thing. If you ever need to go back and review some information seen on a previous site, the browser history can be pulled up to view what you may have accessed a month ago.

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Reading Response 1 – Lindsey Luckevich

To Quaranta, the most important aspect of the computer as a medium is the fact that it allows for the free circulation of ideas outside of traditional channels. Net art is not subject to the approval of a conventional exhibition space, allowing the artist greater autonomy over their finished artworks. Jodi says you can get into someone’s mind from their desktop; Quaranta agrees. Quaranta notes a distinction between different types of computer art viewers: those who believe the art is direct and authentic and those who perceive web art as a mediated, indirect experience (4). The development of the internet art has raised questions of authenticity. Can a work of art with an infinite number of copies possibly be auratic? Quaranta explains that internet art possesses a unique mix of intimacy and monumentality in its distribution which separates it from other forms of contemporary art. depended on connectivity. It was intended to be viewed at home on a screen. When was active, personal computers were not nearly as common as they are today, and they were mostly used by people in STEM fields. Now, it is assumed that any audience possesses basic computer literacy. This widespread knowledge allows memes and tropes to form, further connecting viewers to art through familiarity. Artists no longer have to advocate for the web as a viable distribution platform, they just have to make art that reflects that.

One thing that seems to unite and contemporary online art is a cheeky self-awareness. Web art is acutely aware of its medium and actively works to represent user experiences.

It’s cool cuz it’s nerdy!

Just like comics, webpages are a narrative medium suited to general exposition. Just as McCloud could successfully create a metacomic, we too can successfully create metawebpages that discuss the structure of the medium. McCloud says that panels and frames have no fixed meaning, nor is their meaning necessarily malleable. This applies to a browser window. Browser windows can be adjusted to take up a certain amount of the screen, but this division has no inherent meaning beyond what the user finds most usable. about:blank functions like the white space between comic panels, a natural transition that guides the user. Web pages may be designed linearly, like a comic page, but users are not tied to the linear narrative and are free to shift their eyes.

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Reading Response 1- Sophia Oppel

1. In the introductory chapter to his book In Your Computer, Domenico Quaranta argues that the most important aspect of the computer as a medium is its inherent ability to disseminate the artwork upon its completion. Quaranta cites this quality as a democratic possibility to bypass the highly hierarchical and codified mode of gallery distribution, which relies on a set of pre-established expectations from both the viewer and the gallery curator. The web has a less rigid contextual framework and therefore can promote a more accessible reading of an artwork that is constantly changing based on the viewer’s physical placement and the other windows they have open on their computer, their reading of the work can be informed in a more intimate way. This direct linkage between viewer and sender promotes a more swaying and interactive reading, as net.artist collaborative Jodi states: “You are very close to a person when you are on his desktop. I think the computer is a device to get into someone’s mind” (Baumgärtel). Quaranta also states that the Internet allows smaller name artists to reach a broader social-political audience, widening the artistic dialogue to become less marginalized in favour of gallery recognized artists.


2. Quantara argues that, unlike the increasingly prosaic and commonplace contemporary art world, existed within its own “myth” or set of analytical parameters outside of the legitimization of the gallery. To bring into a gallery would be a huge re-contextualization, perhaps similar to bringing a site-specific work into a gallery space. Net.artists cite web publication and the culture associated with websites to be contemporarily indexical and a valid platform for dissemination. Because there is no real import or emphasis placed on the notion of the “original” or the physical in, it has no place in a gallery for recognition. Additionally, is also more open to the notion of joint authorship and constant reforming through self-reflexive contradictions. This notion does not really work in tandem with the traditional gallery lexicon.

When the movement was waning and artists such as Lialina began displaying their work in galleries, this was seen as a homogenisation of a radical movement, but also denoted a general acceptance of in the high art world and a widening of aesthetic parameters. seems to be more highly politicized than other web based art; as it often happens with an avante-garde movement, once they become more appropriated and generally accepted artistically, the art practices that follow may become more watered down or “trendy” until they are assimilated into mainstream culture. Another difference between early and contemporary online-art is the accessibility- as the servers and computer systems become more sophisticated, older domain names and URLs become increasingly harder to view.

In addition, the idea of the “artist” as an innovative creator of original works does not necessarily compliment practices either. Vuk Cosic, a founder of practice was tempted to give copies of his cites to web masters so that they may create facsimile or “mirror” cites. This creates an interesting (and very temporally relevant) conversation around the hyper-real and the notion of the original image in an age of mass proliferation. However, in order to begin a career as an “artist” and be recognized as one, one must traditionally have a body of original work.

This piece  “Introduction to (1994-1999)” by Natalie Bookchin and Alexei Shulgin, sculpted by Blank& Jeron employs comical, self reflexsive humor that both undermines and reflects; Bookchin and Shulgin employ hyper physical commandment-esque stone tablets that directly undermine the position of net art. In their explicit describtion and break down of the complex, multi-faceted movement the tablets seem to depict the disparateness of and gallery art. These itemized characteristics make theoretical ideas digestible, effectively assimilating the “avante-garde” aspect of into the gallery scene, as the net.artists foresaw would happen.


3.One can perhaps cite a series of animated GIFs as a computer monitor display of comics. GIFs, like comics, can depict multiple temporal durations in a single frame, often relying on textual elements to aid the duration of the panel. A GIF can be as complex as a comic panel; while being associated with a single moment, it can vary greatly in its length in time. A single GIF in a sequence of GIFs is, like a comic panel, a general indicator of a time and space division, describing a particular duration that can illicit a differing analysis based on the chosen movement of the content. In a GIF motion can be depicted in a single file, or through the course of multiple files like comic panels. Below are two GIFs that could work sequentially, both describing a singular moment and creating a narrative and an assumed trajectory between themselves.

GIF 1/2 in sequence. Miyazaki’s “From Up on Poppy Hill”

GIF 2/2 in sequence. Miyazaki’s “From Up on Poppy Hill”

They can also be timeless and vast like a double panel spread in a comic page, when their movement is looped and thus infinitely repeating and immune to chronological constraints. The GIF below is one I made using a screen capture of Second Life. It loops continuously and does not really have a temporal association to it as it is more abstract and perhaps slower in its reading.


Timeless moment

Another potential digital appropriation of a comic vocabulary is an infinite horizontal scroll, which could mimic both the horizontal mode of reading comics and also the motion of turning a page. This adaptation would lend itself most aptly to a very linear and sequential reading. If the whole scroll were one single bleed, rather than divided into panels, it could denote a timeless moment similar to a double page spread. The scroll would pose an interesting variation from a comic book in that the past and future would not always be visible as one scrolled along; like a film the viewer would be stuck in the constant present. One could attempt to make the web comic more interactive by creating multiple directional scroll bars and allowing the reader to follow their own chosen narrative through the horizontal and vertical motions of the scroll bars.


Baumgartel, Tilman. “Interview with Jodi.” Telepolis. Heise Online., 6th Oct 1997. Web. 18th May 2015




















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Reading Response 1 | Celina Laurette

Dominico Quaranta positions the computer as a medium by noting its ability to act as a tool in the creation of art. Most importantly, Quaranta makes the point that the computer is also capable of distributing art and making it accessible to anyone, and so it is a medium which in contemporary in its ability to reach a large audience.

There are a few differences between the motivations of the movement and the current agenda of artists and designers making online content today. Firstly, the movement artists and designers were constrained to creating art to be experienced from a personal computer. Today, creators of online content have been exercising their freedom to create art to be displayed in galleries and physical showings while having the luxury of still being considered creators of ‘online art’. This is the result of the computer becoming a household staple in most North American homes. Everyone is more or less familiarized with the experience of using a computer, and so the references an art piece makes to computer-related ideas is generally understood, regardless if the computer itself is being used as the medium.

Nastya Nudnik inserts social media icons and emojis into existing works of art in her series Emoji-nation.


The movement was about the pioneering of the computer as a medium and the acceptance of the computer as a tool and space where art can exist. Current online art creators face the challenge of differentiating themselves from other online artists, commercial and otherwise, since there is a plethora of art and visual content on the net now. In addition, current online art creators and designers have to take into consideration that the significance of their work existing on the computer has been diluted, since nearly everything that exists in real life has been translated or formatted to exist somewhere on the internet- it is almost expected that artists and designers have some of their work online for portfolio and networking purposes.

Although Scott McClouds analysis of sequential narrative is based on the idea of panels in a comic page, the ideas he’s presented are certainly applicable to the aesthetic of browser windows and wireframes. McCloud presents the idea that the human eye is used to following and reading information in a linear progression. This idea could be of great assistance in the organizing of options or menus in the wireframing of a website, or establishing hierarchy among information on a screen. McCloud also advises to ‘be prepared to paint motion’. A greater sense of space and time could be achieved through the depiction of motion while a viewer navigates through a browser window. This is something many websites already have in effect: the popping-up or sliding-out of icons, options, and menus gives the site a more interactive feeling and adds depth to the overall aesthetic while guiding the attention of users in a particular direction. Personally I find sliding through a gallery of images to be far more comfortable and natural than clicking through and now that many of the screens we interact with are touch-based, being able to recreate motions we’re used to in real life has an allure (i.e., turning the pages of your ebook on your tablet).

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