## Adafruit CPX sound and Sound Sensors

I tried playing around with the CPX sounds to see what are the possibilities. I have never worked with CPX or anything similar, hence I thought that exploring the sound aspect of the CPX will help me develop knowledge and skills that would further aid me in this class.

For the first exploration, I toyed around with the ‘play tone’ feature of makeCode to make various sounds. I made a few tunes with the ‘play melody’ function on the makeCode. Finally after some tries I was able to code simple tunes like happy birthday, twinkle twinkle that etc. on the ‘play tone’ function. I incorporated these tunes, with the ‘on button click’ functions. When button A is pressed the CPX plays happy birthday, when button B is pressed the CPX plays Mary had a little lamb and when both buttons A and B are pressed together twinkle twinkle little star is played.

For the next exploration, I played around with the sound sensor. In the class we briefly explored the sound sensors, so I was very interested in how they can be maneuvered; therefore, I did some research and I landed on a video where the creator uses sound sensors to blow out the LEDs on the CPX, as if they were candles on a birthday cake. I found it very interesting and I tried to mimic the tutorial but instead of blowing candles/LEDs, I tried to make a clap light. When any loud sound/clap is detected by the sensors on the CPX the LEDs light up.

## Exploration Journal 2 – Capacitive Touch: Hand Drawn Circuits

Hello Everyone,

While browsing through numerous tutorials and links about capacitive touch, I landed upon this tutorial.  (Links to an external site.)The artist explores capacitive touch using arduino and a hand drawn circuit. Graphite being a good conductor, powers the circuit and the fan begins to move.

For this exploration I decided to use the aforementioned concept with the CPX, and initiate the capacitive touch to light up the CPX. I used a 6B pencil to draw out the shapes. I realized that the lines have to be really thick and in layers, and vertical strokes of the pencil allow for better conductivity. The graphite is a really good substitute for the expensive conductive paint and is a great way to create interactive art on a budget.

## Exploration Journal 3 – Thermometer Using CPX

For the third exploration, I wanted to try out the sensors on the Circuit Playground as that is something I would like to use in my final project. CPX is a great tool for trying out various inputs as it comes built-in with many different sensors. I was very intrigued by a few tutorials online revolving around temperature and thermal sensing.

I followed the following tutorial to create a thermometer for my room using the CPX.

Result

CODE

Feedback

The thermometer worked very well. My room was very cold at the time of the test hence I received a more analog result. The LEDs on the CPX lit up forming a gradient with shades of blue. As I hovered my finger over the temperature sensor of the Circuit Playground, the heat from my fingers caused the LEDs to light up warmer tones like orange, yellow.

I did a few modifications and the CPX gave me a digital result. When close to the heat the LEDs were red and on moving closer to an open window, the CPX lit up in blue.

Usage

I intend to use this sensor in my final project. I really like the nature of the inputs, as it provides both analog and digital output if coded adequately. Additionally, the temperature sensor can be used with the capacitive touch and can be used to create a well-functioning thermometer for anything.

## Exploration Journals 4 – Technique Exploration: Stitching

Last Journal Entry!

I have zero experience with textiles, and stitching. This semester I have really struggled with putting fabrics together and making them into functional objects. So for the final exploration, I decided to explore stitching techniques, which will help me not only in the final project but also in future. I have learned that basic stitching is a important life skill and everyone should know how to do it. Professor Prior directed me to this website:  https://makezine.com/2016/03/22/5-basic-stitches-you-need-know-plus-textile-tips/ (Links to an external site.).

This website presents 5 stitches that are very important and relatively easy to master. The stitches explored Cross-stitch, whip stitch, running stitch, back stitch and ladder stitch.

Cross Stitch

Cross Stitch is typically used in embroidery and embellishments. It can also be used in putting 2 fabrics together, and leave a nice cross pattern to the joint.

I followed this tutorial:

Experiment

Whip Stitch

Whip Stitches are often used to bind 2 fabrics together, hemming edges, and crochet. I referred to the following link:

Experiment:

Running Stitch

Running Stitches are typically used in tailoring, and sewing basic seams, and it also may come in handy while doing patchwork. The tutorial I followed:

Experiment

Ladder Stitch is also known as invisible stitch and can be used to sew/complete a project with an open seam for stuffing or turning. It is often used in pillows, stuffed toys and/or lined hems. The tutorial I followed was:

Experimentation:

Back Stitch

Back Stitches are often used in embroidery, typically to outline the sketch. It is also a very strong way to attach 2 fabrics together. The tutorial I referred to is as follows:

Experimentation:

These stitches were very easy and helpful. I hope to use them in my final project and later in life. Overall I think that these techniques are very beginner friendly and are a great way to grasp knowledge and explore materials and textiles.

## Open Project

Makecode: https://makecode.com/_WtXC1yRz6VxY

Open Project- Walking Glow

Concept

The concept is inspired by going to the night market in my city, which is something I had been looking forward to but unfortunately cancelled due to Covid. I, additionally, want to incorporate materials that I wouldn’t use after the semester ends or something that isn’t conventionally used in designs – which would be alligator clips. Since alligator clips are only used for testing results, I thought I would somehow incorporate it into the design while attaching LEDs.

Objective

I was also inspired by a shirt that were made out of safety pins, a skirt made out of paint swatches, and skirts that glowed. I’m usually a person who enjoys simplistic and practical clothes, but recently, I was driven by the idea of recycling and to be honest, I doubt that I would ever use my alligator clips again so I wanted to use it as part of my design. The inspirations will be attached in the resources cited below.

The objective for this dress is to be seen or found in the night market when it is dark, contributing to the energetic atmosphere. In the night market here in Richmond, BC, we would always have performances ongoing in the background and I created a sound reactive animation for the CPX. It reacts more strongly to louder spikes in noises, which I think works perfectly for an atmosphere that would be constantly loud but has peaks in the volumes due to the concert.

Process (Including ideation drawings, images of the work in progress, and videos of the different steps)

My initial concept had lights in a series and encircled the entire dress, while being diffused by cling wrap but I had some issues.

1. The light in series isn’t as bright as I want it to be and there wasn’t enough alligator clips.
2. The cling wrap, although the effect is nice, it’s wrinkled texture makes it look cheap. Additionally, it becomes very stiff and restricts movement by  clinging onto your skin – Movement should be a priority in the design considering you would be walking around a lot during a night market
3. The belt is on the side and it is a wrap dress, so sewing it all around isn’t reasonable.

So I made some changes. I would make the clips hang and take up half of the dress, similar to goth punk skirts that are asymmetrical.  Additionally, I sewed the conductive thread to extend until where the dress’s built in belt disconnects from the dress. Here is my circuit diagram and how I planned out the circuit:

Final Project Images

Unclipped – when it is still bright out there’s no need to keep the lights on

Overall dress Circuit

Video Demo of the dress in the dark

Closeup of the two paths that allows you to connect multiple parallel circuits

Parts List

• Alligator Clips
• Hookup Wires (I used one wire as a substitute for an alligator clip because I had an odd number of them)
• LED
• CPX

Reflections & Next Steps

I think my favourite part of this circuit was the two long conductive threads across the belt of the dress. This is because the colour is so discreet that it hides within the dress design really well. Additionally, it allows the alligator clips to clip onto them snugly because it is sewn tightly that it doesn’t escape. Also, since I am a beginner at sewing, I felt a huge sense of relief and accomplishment that the circuit worked well after it was done. I did have to re sew the line that connected to A2, because it was really unstable – the LEDs sometimes worked and sometimes didn’t so something went wrong in the sewing process. But when I redid it, it was fine. It also made the rest of the process a lot simpler too. Since I designed for the rest of the circuit to be adjustable and detachable, it was really convenient to move and adjust things whenever I wanted to as long as the threads that connected to the pins worked.

What I want to work on for future projects, and personal projects, would be to find a way to incorporate the wire for the CPX discreetly and allow it to be a more conveniently portable design. Additionally, I would want to try a bio feedback design, which can monitor heartbeats and health. I think that would especially be helpful in a night market, when you can monitor if you’re tired or if your blood pressure goes up, etc.

Resources & Related Works (cited in APA)

Stephen. (2018, May 05). Sound Reactive Lights using MakeCode: Adafruit Circuit Playground Express – Tutorial. Retrieved from https://core-electronics.com.au/tutorials/sound-reactive-lights-makecode-circuit-playground-express-tutorial.html
Tullis, T. (2012, September 14). Paper Clip Dress by Erika Williams. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/tomtullis/7984336608

## Open Project – Light Step

Concept:

My concept is to create a shoe with two analog pressure sensors on the bottom. Most people walk differently then other, when some people run they only step on the toes while other use roll from the heel to there toes. The inputs are the two separate analog pressure sensors, and the CPX will display the output as LEDs. Originally I wanted to use three sensors and 3 corresponding single LEDs that would increase in brightness during increase in pressure, but there wasn’t enough connections on the CPX to achieve that and its harder to see the pressure change with just the brightness increasing.

Objective:

To represent and analyse, through lights, how you step and see how much pressure you apply n your heel compared to your toes when you step. Can also compare your step to another persons step.

Process:

I first started with following Variable resistors workshop to create the analog sensors.

For the code I just adjusted the Variable Workshop code to work for two sensors and changed how the lights function.

I then layed out the circuit and successfully tested the sensors.

I then started sewing the CPX to the shoe and extended the flaps on the sensors to secure them to the bottom of the shoe by taping the flaps to the sides of the shoe.

I then sewed the two resistors on either side of the shoe and connected them and the CPX to the sensors with conductive thread. I had to use two wires in order to not run the conductive thread onto each other because there were only certain parts of the shoe I could sew into.

In order to conceal all the parts and wires I cut out a sock to fit around the shoe while leaving the sensors uncovered and leaving the CPX open to be covered with tissue paper to defuse the LEDs while still be able to see each light on it own when lit.

Testing: https://youtu.be/DMO9C0WJuyY

Final Project Images:

Final Video: https://youtu.be/OjSSqfh5Yv8

Parts List:

Circuit Playground Express

Running Shoe

Two 10K Resistors

Two Wires

Electrical Tape

Sock

Conductive Fabric

Felt Fabric

Velostat

Circuit Diagram:

Reflection: I think the final product communicated the idea and concept clearly but it could function more accurately and the aesthetic of the sock doesn’t make it look very nice.  If I were to do it again I would use a much thinner shoe in order to be able to sew the conductive thread into anywhere on the shoe, because the one I used limited the space the thread could be. If I had a shoe with that space and a CPX with more analog pins or a second one in order to accomplish my initial idea of using three sensors (add one to the center of the sole) and with there own corresponding LEDs that could all be on at once representing the pressure with brightness but the LEDs I have made hard to distinguish between ranges of pressure. I also think the sensors could be built better but my sewing experience limited me in making it function perfectly and more accurately.

Resources:

Variable Resistor Workshop

# Journal Entries

1. Sound and Light with the Circuit Playground Express
2. Fabric Potentiometer
3. Capacitive Touch and Animations
4. Coding an RGB LED with an Arduino UNO

## Journal Entry #1: Sound and Light with the CPX

For my first journal entry, I wanted to attempt a part of the product I designed for the speculative wearable assignment. For the speculative wearable, I had designed a headband that lights up and changes colour based on the sounds around the wearer, as we have access to make code and our playground express’ I wanted to try and attempt to program my CPX to do the same. To begin, I began researching the capabilities of the CPX and what is in the microcontroller. Upon researching further I found a video on how to program the playground express to react with the sound around it. The code that I created by following this video was fairly simple but within the video, I also learned how to change the brightness of the lights using the switch on the board as well as connect my board to MakeCode itself so I could view the graphs based on the data from my playground circuit and not from the website simulation.

Below are my sound graphs for the sound level detected when faced with levels of 100 and 150,  with the same music each time. I used the same music and volume level to understand how sensitive the circuit’s microphone really is to the sound around it. I immediately noticed that when using the level of 100 the lights were all lit up without any music playing yet and that the lights didn’t all light up with the sensitivity of 150 and the music playing directly beside the CPX.

I further decided to test the sensitivity of the CPX by placing the source of the sound at 2 more points of distance (within the same room) to see how the lights would be affected by the sound.

 Sound Level: 100 Sound Level: 150

Moving the playground circuit at varying locations from the music didn’t change the number of lights blinking at certain points but it did affect the data in the chart. Different locations affected the varying levels of sound at the different time sources of the playground express.  After creating the code, I played around with the sensitivity of the microphone to see which one would work best for the headband idea I had for the speculative wearable assignment. After playing around with the sensitivity level I decided the default level should be 125 just for areas in relatively low amounts of sound.

After completing this, I managed to program the playground express to light up with the sound I played around with the different light colours for different levels of sound.

This is the code I came up with:

I used conditional statements on the sound and the light patterns of the circuit playground express to create different patterns within the LEDs on the board. In doing this we won’t be able to see the sound “level” on the board as the lights don’t gradually move up according to the sound. Instead, the lights will all light up to a colour that signifies which sound level it is in.

Level of Sound

My first code when attempting to change the colour based on the level of sound around the circuit board only changed with three different levels so I tried another method that changes the colour to the actual sound level as the code of the colour, with the first attempt (shown above) it only changed the colour of the CPX to a navy blue even though the codes numbers varied. So trying a different method I instead set the hue value to the sound level and was able to change the colour of the lights to the value of the sound detected.

Reflection

Overall this exploration was one I really enjoyed and can see myself doing stuff with in the future. I enjoy playing around with the CPX and learning the different things I can do with it. Learning what I can do with all the light settings on the CPX is something I will continue to explore in my own time. Managing to create a part of a product that I came up with for the speculative wearable assignment is something I am proud of because when coming up with my product for the assignment I assumed that an actual prototype version would be much harder to create but with the code that I learned during this exploration, I found that programming the actual lights isn’t as hard as I originally thought.

Sources:

Core Electronics. “Sound Reactive Lights Project with Circuit Playground &amp; MakeCode.” Youtube, 5 May 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNxQ9dT0kqY .

## Journal Entry #2: Fabric Potentiometer

For my second exploration journal, I have tried to create the Fabric Potentiometer which was shown in the week 6 module. The idea of a “dial” that could change the amount of resistance going through the circuit is something that I want to explore. Using the design by KobaKant I wanted to create a volume bar so that on one side of the potentiometer the volume would be really low and on the other would be louder. I wanted to use volume instead of the tutorials use for the potentiometer to be a time sensor. I want to test the potential uses for this fabric “dial”. The original link from the presentation does link to an Instructables page but following that link brought me to a dead end as the instructable couldn’t be found. After searching in several places I was able to find an instructable that showed the uses of the time sensor bracelet and how to create one for the Arduino so I decided to apply some of the steps when creating my bracelet for the CPX. For the purposes of my experiment, I decided not to create a bracelet but just the volume sensor that I could connect to the CPX with alligator clips.

My process of drawing and assembling the circuit:

After assembling the circuit I went on to make the code. Taking the code for the pressure sensor workshop I added volume elements to each if statement to test if the volume would change at different locations on the potentiometer. This method did not end up working so I then attempted to change the volume equal to a variable that changed according to where the connection was placed.

First attempt (did not work): circuitplayground-AnalogScaleForVolume.uf2

Second Attempt (also did not work): circuitplayground-AnalogScaleForVolume2 (3).uf2

After changing the code multiple times I realized that I forgot to add a pull-up resistor to the velostat circle, once I added it I tried all the codes I had made so far and none of them were working as I wanted.

As I originally wanted to control the volume of the CPX’s programmable sounds with this potentiometer the sounds started to give me a headache after listening to them for a while so I decided to change what the potentiometer controls to the LEDs on the circuit playground express. To do so, I researched and found an article on the adafruit website about some basic codes that can be used to chang the lights on the CPX to the value of the potentiometer. Using this code my potentiometer is able to adjust the amount of lights according to where the extra piece of conductive fabric is. The lights are not always accurate to the position of the wiper on the potentiometer but it does adjust fairly well to the location of the wiper.

Final code:

Images of final potentiometer:

Sources:

Barela, Anne. “Make It Change: Potentiometers.” Adafruit Learning System, 18 Sept. 2018, learn.adafruit.com/make-it-change-potentiometers/makecode.

HOW TO GET WHAT YOU WANT, www.kobakant.at/DIY/?p=543%C2%A0%C2%A0.

Plusea. “Time Sensing Bracelet.” Instructables , 26 Mar. 2009, www.instructables.com/Time-Sensing-Bracelet/  .

## Journal Entry #3: Capacitive Touch and Animations

Since the beginning of this semester, I have been wanting to try to create different light animations on the Circuit playground express. This week I attempted to do so by also using capacitive touch to trigger the two different animations I am planning on creating.

To begin with, this project I determined which pins I would use as the touch sensors, I decided to go with A2 and A6 since they are completely opposite one another. As the pins are far away from each other I won’t need to extend the sensor beyond the pin on the board.

The animations that I wanted to try and create are essentially one of the leaves turning to red and orange and another of apples falling from a tree. With these two concepts for the animations, I went into MakeCode to begin. I created an if statement and used functions to organize the lights and patterns, this way the code wouldn’t be super long and unorganized.

As the block to set all colours kept overriding the other colours I decided to declare each and every light separately even if the colour is on every pixel, this is because I wanted to see the animation as I was coding the lights. After completing the code, I would change this back to using the single block as declaring each and every light for the same colour causes them to turn on separately.

Playing around with the code took about an hour, as I started getting really picky over the formation of how the leaves turned red and orange as I didn’t want them to turn all one after another. The final version of my code changes some leaves to red before all the green leaves have left. I attempted to add a fade when the colours change but was unable to figure out the block to do so. As we only learned how to fade an external LED with the CPX in class, I tried to find a way to do a crossfade of the CPX’s internal LEDs but was unable to find a method that worked. As a result, I picked a softer change of colours that seems more natural from yellow to orange. The softer orange ended up looking very yellow, so I changed it to the standard code for orange.

Final Animation Code: circuitplayground-Capacitive-Touch-Exploration-Journal (2).uf2

Video of animations:https://youtu.be/nq7qMGykt_4

## Journal Entry #4: Coding an RGB LED with an Arduino UNO

For my last journal entry, I  wanted to figure out to use these 4 pin LEDs that I got in a box of LEDs from my local electronics store.  Once, I figure out the differences and how to code each light I want to try coding some of the LEDs myself,  with my Arduino UNO.

In the box, I bought I got two types of LEDs with 4 legs, and from what I understand I should be able to program which colour I want the LED to light up, so for this exploration journal I am going to research codes and ways I can use these LEDs and attempt to use the techniques with either my CPX or Arduino Uno. I started my exploration by trying to find the difference between the Intelligent control RGB Light is and other LEDs are, as they both look the same.

Upon researching the two LED types I couldn’t find any noticeable difference between how they will act when coded. So I decided to continue researching potential circuit setups for just the common LEDs. Most of the circuit diagrams I came upon had multiple potentiometers which I currently don’t have access to.

Then I started to look into different ways the code is made so I could find one in which we code the colours before sending the information to the Arduino and stumbled upon this circuit diagram and decided to attempt to try this set up for my common anode LED first.

The tutorial I followed used 2.2K ohm resistors, since I don’t have the same value resistor, I created them with two 1K resistors and a 220-ohm resistor on each pin that required resistors.

This is my circuit with the RGB common anode LED:

After I created my circuit I started to code the LED using the code provided on the same page as the fritzing diagram.

After copying the code to test the LED, I realized that the code would never work with the Arduino as it needed specific files within the library of the owner which I could not access to try and understand what it does. So I began researching another method to control the RGB values of the LED.  Around this time, I started to wonder if I could use photosensors to control the value of each light, so I started researching the different ways to connect the photosensors to the LED to try this theory I had.

My photoresistor circuit (not including the 5V wire):

In the end, I couldn’t find anybody who had previously tried this so I decided to use codes that used potentiometers to adjust the colour led, using this code I would substitute the potentiometer for the photosensor which should essentially do the same thing as it is a type of sensor. The code that I used as a base is from this link: https://randomnerdtutorials.com/electronics-basics-how-do-rgb-leds-work/

The schematic diagram is also very similar to the setup I created which should help with coding my light.

Not only did the link provide the code, but it explained it easily which made it easier to understand what each part of the code does. I also stumbled upon a website that explained that the code for potentiometers and for photoresistors almost always is the exact same. You can check that link right here. (Links to an external site.)

This is the version of the code I used:

With this version I was able to change the colour of the LED to the photosensor that was in darkness, I was also able to combine the colours to create purple, yellow and white when there is little to no light on all the sensors. Video Link! (the red, green and blue led’s in the background are intended to stay off, they are just there as an indicator of which photosensor controls a specific colour.)

## Group 6 Skillshare: Knit Your Own Conductive Fabric

Concept
Everyone in our group had all already researched methods for making e-textiles and soft electronic components in our personal practice for this class. We wanted to show that the type of e-textile included in the course kit is not the only option. You can create e-textiles specifically for your wearable, rather than tailor your project to the constraints of what is commercially available.

Tutorial
Our video teaches you a very basic knitting technique so that you can make a small piece of conductive fabric. It gives you an idea of how e-textiles are made, and demonstrates the versatility of conductive knits. We want to show people with no previous fibre experience the possibilities open to you if you choose to research these techniques further.

Materials

Conductive thread (included in kit from Creatron)
Yarn – Michaels, Dollarama, and Walmart all have inexpensive yarn. For this tutorial, you want a medium yarn-it’ll have a number 4 on the wrapper-and a light colour so you can see your conductive thread.
Knitting needles – size 4mm or 5mm (US6 or US8) – available in the same stores as yarn
Scissors

Note: You can use whatever yarn and needles you find lying around as long as it feels comfortable to you.

We have included some links to further knitting tutorials(videos and pictures) at the end of the post if you decide to pursue these techniques further.

Instructions

To make the fabric, we will be holding the conductive thread and yarn together. Just put them together and pretend it’s a single piece of yarn! When you follow the tutorial, hold the 2 strands together the whole time.
[pic]

First, tie a slip knot where the part of the loop that you pull on to tighten/loosen it (the “slip” part) leads back to the ball of yarn. Place the loop on the needle with the short end in the back.
Note: Don’t pull it too tight once it’s on the needle! It should be snug enough to stay on the needle, but not tightly tied like a knot.

Next we will cast on (put stitches on the needle) – our fabric is 10 stitches wide, so we are going to put 10 stitches onto the needle.
Hold the needle with the slip knot in your left hand. Stick the right needle into the front of the loop, so that it is underneath the left needle and pointing forwards.[pic]
With your right hand, take the long part of the yarn that leads back to the ball (this is called your “working yarn”) and wrap it around the right needle as shown.[pic]
With the right needle, pull the wrap towards you, through the middle of the first loop. Now you’ll have a second loop sticking out of it – place this back on the left needle with the working yarn in back, and pull it snug.[pic]
Repeat this 8 more times, and you will have 10 stitches on the left needle.[pic]
**In the video, Joyce uses a “long tail cast on.” The written instructions and pictures show a knit cast on, and you can see a video of it here: https://tutorials.knitpicks.com/knitted-cast-on/ feel free to follow Joyce’s method in the video if you want to**

To make the fabric, we will be using the knit stitch. This is a lot like how you cast on. Stick the right needle through the front of the stitch.

Wrap it with the working yarn; then pull the new loop through the front.

But this time, slip the old loop off the tip of the left needle.

You have just made one stitch!

Repeat this across the rest of the stitches, and that’s how you knit your first row. Knitting goes from right to left, so at the end of the first row, turn your work over so the working yarn is on the right side again.

Then just repeat what you did for the first row.

Our example is 15 rows long, so you would go from right to left 15 times. You can do as many rows as you want, but we found that this size was the smallest piece of fabric you could make that still demonstrates all the applications of conductive knits.

When your piece is as long as you want it, it is time to take it off the needle. Knit 2 stitches as if it is a regular row, so that you have 2 loops on the right needle, and the rest are still on the left needle.

Now, stick the tip of the left needle into the rightmost loop on the right needle. Lift it over the loop to its left and off the tip of the right needle. You will now have 1 loop on the right needle.

Knit 1 more stitch, then lift the previous stitch over it&off the right needle as before. Repeat this across the row until only the last stitch is left on the needle.

Cut the working yarn, take the needle out of the last stitch, and thread the cut end of the yarn through the loop. Pull it tight like a knot, and your knitted conductive fabric is finished!

We used light coloured yarn so you could see the conductive thread:

But with the right colours, you can make the thread almost invisible:

You can also learn different knitting stitches to make really pretty fabric:

Why Even Do This?
We shared this tutorial as a helpful solution for making your wearables softer. By learning to craft your own fabric, you can produce custom e-textiles for your work. Knitted conductive fabrics are also extremely versatile and have many advantages over woven or commercial e-textiles. You should be able to see most of these firsthand with the sample swatch from the tutorial.

Firstly, connectors can be attached to this fabric anywhere, and even attached temporarily as you decide where to place components on your wearable.

Another example: https://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?p=1618. You can essentially use the actual fabric of your wearable as a breadboard.

The yarn hanging from the end of the fabric can be tied to a pin on your controller.

Because this fabric is stretchy, it is also resistive. The technique taught in our workshop is a good jumping-off point for further experimentation with conductive yarns, different levels of resistance in conductive fibres, and the construction of completely soft sensors. Sources:
Crochet/Knit Pressure Sensors. (2016/12). Retrived from

Crochet/Knit Pressure Sensors

Knit Stretch Sensors

It is also possible to knit actuators, whether entirely out of wire as seen here: https://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?p=4465, or with the combination of conductive thread/wire we show in the video.
Connectors or wires are very easily hidden in knit fabric, which makes it possible to knit a seamless, nearly invisible actuator like the speakers above.

References (includes further info on knitting):

Kobakant DIY Wearable Tehcnology Documentation. (1999). How To Get What You Want. Retrieved from https://www.kobakant.at/DIY/

Purl Stitch. (2017/02/28). https://www.purlsoho.com/create/purl-stitch/
You will need this if you want to make the “pretty” fabric pictured earlier in the post.

## Speculative Wearable

Hello everyone, my expressive wearable is a little late, but here it is.

Warming and Correctional Band

Concept

Bad posture, sore muscles, any kind of cramps can all hit you at once. I wanted to create an easy breathable accessory that can be worn on top or underneath clothing to help tackle these problems. My speculative wearable is a band that warms, and corrects simultaneously. The band can serve as just a posture correcting accessory, or a warming strap for sore muscles. But it can also do both at the same time!

Interaction

What different states does it have?

The band can be used as…

1. A non warming or warming posture correction band
2. A non warming or warming waist band
3. A warming band to wrap around sore muscles
4. A heated band for menstruation

How is it activated?

It is activated by a button, and warms.

How is it deactivated?

The same button that activates it deactivates it.

Where is it located on the body?

The band is flexible, and meant to be very breathable. It can be positioned anywhere on the body, and moves naturally with the body’s behavior.

Materials:

This prototype is made of gauze, and tape.

Similar Works

Heat Pack, Large Heat Pad, Nontoxic Rice Pack, Anxiety Relief Microwaveable, Heat Therapy, Cute Head Pad, Washable Cover (n.d.). Retrieved March 17th, 2021 from https://www.etsy.com/ca/listing/759416743/heat-pack-large-heat-pad-nontoxic-rice?ref=hp_rv-2

Orliman Breathable Shoulder Posture Supporter (n.d.).  Retrieved March 17th, 2021 from https://www.orthomed.ca/orliman-breathable-shoulder-posture-supporter?gclid=Cj0KCQjw0caCBhCIARIsAGAfuMzbB6fqulIIDPEGh0g2IK6SWnZ8nCePv0583KFXFSpc5zoiseuin14aAt7HEALw_wcB

## Skill Sharing Workshop – Group 3: Conductive Paint

Group Members:
Khushi Jetley – filming tutorial & process video(s)

Michael Sinn – circuit diagrams and testing

Alex Rojas – video editing

Octavian Gherghe – blog post and writing

Objective:

The group decided that we wanted to orient the tutorial towards something simple that could be done without having to order anything expensive, or go out of your way to get materials. This was partially due to the pandemic making it harder to order materials, as well as not wanting to railroad students into a complicated project. With this in mind, we decided to do  DIY style workshop focused on the Unusual Materials topic that Olivia suggested.

This workshop a short video on how to make simple and cheap conductive paint from home, that you can use to create unconventional circuits or to spice up your artwork.

Materials & Tools:

• Alligator clips / Conductive thread / Circuit wiring
• Paint (acrylic paint was used in our examples)
• Paintbrush
• Salt
• Mixing bowl
• A medium to spread the paint on: paper, wood, etc
• LED
• Battery or CPX with a power cable (3V was used in the video)

Most of these materials should be available at home, but if you need to buy anything it will not be expensive or hard to get, they can be found in local stores or by online distribution. The only exotic item is the CPX if you decide to use it, but most of you will have this due to the course requisite.

Process:

https://youtu.be/EUWt3ZcG4Go

1. Pour some paint in a mixing bowl and add a generous amount of salt.
2. Mix it until it reaches a thick oily like texture.
3. Use the mixture as a conductive pathway in your circuit, and spread it however you like on your materials.
4. Complete your circuit and test it to see if the paint works.

We used a basic circuit to test out the paint:

But the paint can be applied to a few other situations as well:

Result:

The result should leave you with a spreadable paste that can replace conductive thread or other methods you have been using for circuit creation. Though it might not be the most effective method, the group thought that it was a creative and interesting way to give students more freedom when it came to their projects. Not only can this be used in circuitry and wearables, it can be used in paintings or art installations for light shows or other electrical surprises.

Reflections:

Initially, we wanted to make the paint with graphite, but it was less reliable and not as conductive as the salt paint when it was tested. The goal of our tutorial was to create a quick DIY that everyone is able to create and use, and we think that we did that successfully.

References:

## Skill Sharing Workshop – Group 2

Weiqi Wu

Ricky Chau

Brandon Santos

Mahmoud Sumrain

#### Concept

During the initial ideation phase, we pondered much around the topic of exercise and how we could produce something that could help users focus more on their workouts. After considering a few issues that could have a feasible solution, we concluded that we wanted to produce a product that could track every repetition of a jumping jack that visually and auditorily provides feedback. To this end, we succeeded in producing a product that would encourage users who find themselves consistently discouraged by misremembering their number of repetitions to exercise freely with enhanced mental fortitude.

#### Introduction

The project we are showcasing is a counting wearable that utilizes pressure sensors. These sensors are located on the shoes’ insoles, and it tracks whenever the user walks, jumps, or dances among various other activities that produce some form of pressure to the tip of the shoe. Every time the sensor is triggered, the analog sends data to the CPX, which then lights up the LEDs sequentially, indicating their current aggregate repetitions.

#### Skills Involved

Sewing techniques to sew the pressure sensor as well as for connecting the circuit.

#### Manufacturing Tutorial

1. Measure the size of the insole, and cut the conductive fabric, non-conductive fabric and Velostat. Ensure that the non-conductive fabric is the longest, followed by the Velostat which should be made to cover the conductive fabric so that the two conductive pieces are separated by a barrier.
2. Use the non-conductive thread to sew them onto the felt.
3. Place the Velostat in the middle and sew them together.
4. Sew two stripes of the conductive fabric on each side.
5. Using a glue gun, stick the pressure sensor on the tip of the insole along with the conductive fabric stripes. Glue a piece of felt in the middle of the insole.
6. Place the CPX at the end of the felt, using conductive thread to connect the conductive stripes to 3.3 V, to resistor –>ground, to pin A1
7. Add a non-conductive yarn at the end of the felt in order to fix the position of the CPX on top of the shoe.
8. Install the insole within the shoes then pull the felt from the side of the shoe, and fasten the position by tying a knot at the other side.
9. Connect the product to your power source.

#### Coding Tutorial

https://makecode.com/_8pYVvVYf43iR

• To begin, we will need to reset a couple of variables that we will be tracking including the number of jumps, sets and turns. Further, we will be specifying the total amount of reps that we would perform within a set and one turn.
• Set up four variables: “Jump”, “Reps”, “Set”, and “Turn.”

• Create an “on start” which could be found in the LOOPS category.
• Set the variables “Jump,” “Set,” and “Turn,” to 0, and “Reps” to 10.
• Set all of the colours of the pixels to black. This ensures that they are off as the circuit turns on.
• When the user begins their workout, we want the jumps, sets and turns to be fixed at zero, while the number of reps inside of a set to be ten. This is done so that every time we jump and add pressure to the sensor, it increases the number of NeoPixels that are blue by one, and they stay whatever colour we set them to until we turn them off.

• Add another variable “analogValue”, in order to read the pressure value/level

• Set up the analog Value to analog read pin A1

• Set up an if condition so that when analogValue (the pressure data) is over 1000, it changes the value of the variable“Jump” by one without any colours.
• This step is essential for accuracy as we found out that analog read is very sensitive. We encountered an error whereby when the user jumps once the value will increase to number 10.
• One set = the user jumps one time.

• Set up another “if” condition so that when the value of the variable“jump” equals the number of reps (10) and so that 10 is the number of reps we wanted to do inside of a set.
• Then set the value of variable “jumps” back to 0 so that we could track it again.
• And create a for loops, turn one of the pixels blue. And this is going to count how many jumps we have by changing the number of sets. Also, set up that it will change the number of variables “Set” by 1.
• When people jump the second time, and the value for the variable “set” has increased by one.

• Set up an if statement again. If the number of variable “Set” equal to the number of variable “Reps”, which means people jump 10 times. Set the number of variables “Set” back to 0 (Then set the number of variable “Jumps” back to 0 so that we could track it again), and reset the NeoPixels so that there’s no light lit as they were going to stay blue.
• And create a for loops, turn one of the pixels red. And this is going to count how many times we jumped 10 times we did by changing the number of the variable “Turn”. Also, set up that it will change the number of variables “turn” by 1.
• So when people jump every ten times, and the value for variable “turn” has increased by one.

• When we reach the maximum of ten turns, it will play a siren sound. It also then reset the number of all the variables “Jump,” “Set,” and “Turn,” along with the lights. This is so that if the user desires, they could start again.

Overview Image

#### Reflection & Further Development

Reflection:

• The pressure is not accurate enough since any source of direct non-exercise-related pressure could potentially activate the circuit. This is not ideal as it is possible for the product to read it standing and exerting pressure on the top of the shoe as a jump. Analog data is unfortunately not the best-suited option for recording data for our purposes.
• The duration of the tutorial may be longer than what was instructed in the guidelines as it takes quite some time to sew the product. However, all of the steps are generally straightforward.
• There might be a better way to attach the CPX, as well as a better way to fasten it on top of the shoes. Perhaps it could have even been on the side, not necessarily on the top.
• If you would like to explore more on the topic of acceleration in CPX, check out this informative video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ydu1KnGWjrI

Further Development:

• Add a button – only when the button is on, the circuit will activate.
• To use acceleration in the CPX instead of the pressure sensor as it may end up providing more accurate readings.
• It could be used on socks, or we could potentially make it a separate entity that can be placed in various other localities.
• To allow some users to define how many reps they would like to do since it is currently a fixed amount until the siren rings.

#### References

How to get what you want. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?p=6927

(2020, May 29). How to make an e-textile analog sensor. Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tA37mGEnPes&t=62s

Working with Analog Data, Olivia Prior, February 23, 2021, from https://canvascloud.ocadu.ca/courses/1271/pages/working-with-analog-data-25~min?module_item_id=121932

## Group 8 Skillshare

Group Members + Responsibilities:

Hedy Fu: Blog+ Video Edit

Zoe Roiati-Antonucci: Code

Vermont Urbanovich: Filming

Vaneeza Usman: Written Tutorials

Concept

Our goal is to create a simple tool that will allow people to switch diffusion materials easily. It is highly inspired by how cameras are designed with removable and switchable lens.

Materials (and where to get them)

For Constructing the circuit:

• Circuit Playground Express (CPX) (Creatron)
• 1 – 220-ohm resistor (Creatron)
• 1 – LED (Creatron)
• 1 – Photosensor (Creatron)
• 1 – 10K resistor(Creatron)
• 6 Alligator Clips (if you don’t want to sew your circuit) (Creatron)
• Sewing Needle  (at home or a local crafts store like Michaels)
• Thread  (at home or a local crafts store like Michaels)
• Scissors   (at home or a local crafts store like Michaels)
• Felt (at home or a local crafts store like Michaels)
• Paper and Pen (Sketching)  (at home or a local crafts store like Michaels)

Diffusion Materials:

• Cotton balls (at home or grocery store)
• Cling Film/Saran wrap (at home or grocery store)

Circuit Diagrams

Step by Step

Sewing:

1. Draw the circuit, on a piece of paper. Attach the photosensor to pin 3.3V, with the 10K resistor on the line, a connection line in between that goes to pin A5,  and the LED to pin A1 with the 220-ohm resistor.
2. Once you are happy with the circuit design draw the circuit on the felt.
3. Sew the CPX to the felt using thread, loop through each pin.
4. Sew through pin 3.3V with conductive thread, loop around 3 times then sew to where the Photosensor will be placed.
5. Take the photosensor and curl the legs to form a circle that can be looped through. Loop through the first curled leg of the Photosensor and tie off the conductive thread.
6. Loop through the second curled leg with a new string of conductive thread sewing till the location of the 10K resistor.
7. Curl the legs of the resistor and sew the first leg down then tie off the conductive thread.
8. Start again at the second leg of the Photoresistor and loop through it a few times. Next sew to the A5 pin, loop around it and tie off the thread.
9. Taking a new piece of conductive thread sew the last leg down and sew to a GND (ground)  pin on the CPX.
10. Repeat the same process (steps 5-9 but not step 8)  for the LED and the 220 ohm resistor on pin A1. But make sure to sew the long leg first, The shorter leg will be connected with the same piece of conductive thread as the 220ohm resistor.
11. Connect your CPX to your computer and follow the steps to create the code. Then take different materials and cover the LED to understand what are the different ways that an LED can be diffused. Also, try and see how the light bounces off some of the materials provided.

Alligator Clips:

1. Attach one alligator clip pin 3.3V, the first clip on the pin and the second on one leg of the photoresistor.
2. Connect the other leg of the photosensor to another alligator clip, and then attach it to pin A5.
3. Connect another alligator clip to the same leg of the photoresistor attach the other side to the 10K resistor.
4. Connect an alligator clip to the 10K resistor and then to GND (ground).
5. Connect an alligator clip to A1, the first clip on the pin and the second clip will connect to the long leg of the LED, the anode.
6. Take another alligator clip and connect it to the short leg of the LED, connect the other side to the 220-ohm resistor.
7. Connect the last alligator clip to the 220-ohm resistor and to any remaining ground pins available on the CPX.

Connect your CPX to your computer and create the code. Then take different materials and cover the LED to understand what are the different ways that an LED can be diffused. Also, try and see how the light bounces off some of the materials provided.

1. Open a new Make Code document and add an “on start” block
2. Create two variables, one for max brightness and one for minimum brightness.
3. Open the “set {variable} to __” from the variables folder, create two. Set the Max brightness to 180 and minimum brightness variable to 40. Put the two blocks inside “on start”.
4. Create a variable called “control”.
5. Set control as “analog read pin A5” and place it within the “forever” block.
6. Create another to set a value to “control”.
7.  Take three math blocks one for multiplication, subtraction and division.
8. Add the max brightness bubble to the first location of the multiplication function.
9. Take the subtraction bubble and place it in the second location of the multiplication bubble.
10. Set the first value of the subtraction bubble to one, drag the division function to the second location of the subtraction bubble.
11. Add the control bubble to the first location of the division bubble, make the second value 1023.
12. Take the multiplication bubble that holds the subtraction and the division bubbles and place it as the value of control. Place this variable block below “set control to analog pin A5”
13. Create a logic statement using the conditional if statement with a comparison block of less than “<“.
14. Set the comparison to “control” is less than “min brightness” and place this comparison in the conditional statement.
15. If the conditional statement becomes true “set control to min brightness”.
16. After the if statement “set analog write pin A1 to control.”
17. Plug in your CPX and try the code.

https://youtu.be/-H2cC47xL5E

References

Blaine, Erin St. “Steven Universe Wearable, Fusable Gem.” Adafruit Learning System, 6 Mar. 2019, learn.adafruit.com/steven-universe-wearable-fusable-gem.

Brothers, Ruiz. “Touch Tone for Circuit Playground Express.” Adafruit Learning System, 27 June 2018, learn.adafruit.com/touch-tone-for-circuit-playground-express.

“Tester Tools: Bracelets.” HOW TO GET WHAT YOU WANTwww.kobakant.at/DIY/?p=7881.

## Skill Sharing Workshop – Group 7

Group Members: Giulia Zefilippo, Ziqi Guo, & Imra Ali

Overview

2020 turned the world upside down due to COVID. This month we completed 1 year of the pandemic. During these struggling times, people’s mental health has been triggered.

As a group, we decided to tackle this assignment by applying this real-world issue. In this workshop, you will create a self-reflection and meditation wearable.

How does it work?

The design is activated by a meditation pose. The experience begins with sound activation. A silent timer goes off but light animations are shown. Assuming that the person using the wearable has their eyes closed, the lights are meant for people around them to not disturb. Once the timer is complete, another sound will be played which means the person can release from their pose.

Materials Required

• Long sleeve or button shirt
• 2 x Sewing needles
• Conductive fabric
• Circuit Playground Express + USB cable
• Washable marker or Fabric Pencil (optional)
• Scrap paper (optional)
• Tape (optional)
• Sponge (optional)

The materials listed above can be found either at home, local stores, or online. Amazon, Creaton, and Digikey are perfect placed to find conductive thread, conductive fabric, and the Circuit Playground Express.

Circuit Diagram

Step by Step Instructions

Step 1: Collect and prepare

Begin by collecting all the materials. After, prepare the sewing materials by threading the needles with regular thread and conductive thread.

Step 2: Cutting fabric and preparing guides

Using scrap paper, create and cut two identical shapes. Next, trace the two shapes onto conductive fabric and cut them out. These shapes will be placed on the sleeves of your shirt.

Step 3: Placement of guides

The paper shapes created in the previous step will act as your guides.

Tape the guides onto each sleeve.

The guides should touch each other when your arms are crossed and your hands rest on your shoulders. Below is a picture of the pose.

Step 4: Placement of conductive fabric shapes

Once the placement of the guides is correct, trace each shape using a washable marker (or fabric pencil). Remove the guides and place the conductive fabric shapes into the traced locations. Using regular thread, sew the fabric into place.

Step 5: Placement of the CPX

Using regular thread, sew the Circuit Playground Express onto the mid-chest or shoulder area. In our tutorial, we sewed the CPX onto the collar of our button shirt.

Step 6: Sewing a pathway with conductive thread

Using conductive thread, you’ll connect the CPX to the conductive fabric placed on your sleeves.

Begin by sewing around pin A3 to secure a strong connection. With the thread attached, sew down the sleeve to the closet conductive fabric. Ensure there’s a strong connection with fabric before cutting the thread.

Repeat the above process but with the GND (ground) pin.

IMPORTANT: When sewing pathways to the conductive fabrics, ensure they do not touch each other. If the threads touch, the circuit will be triggered and our product will not work.

Once the construction is complete, connect your micro USB wire to your computer and uploaded the below code.  Scroll down to learn how the code works

https://makecode.com/_TwPMT4Pee2C3

Voilà! Now take a seat, close your eyes, hold the crossed armed position, and enjoy this soothing mindful meditation.

Step 8: CPX Covering (Optional)

To add personality and uniqueness to your creation, take a sponge and draw a shape with it. Next, cut it out and tape it to your CPX. The sponge’s layers and the CPX’s built-in LED light delivers a beautiful combination.

How does the code work?

The code used to create this meditation wearable is quite simple. A switch was created when you used the conductive thread to connect the CPX to the conductive fabric.

In the code, we indicated that if A3 and GND are connected then activate the meditation code. In the bracket, volume, brightness, medley, and timer are set. It begins with a medley being playing. Next, 5 light animations are shown for 60 secs each. After a secure connection for each light animation, a medley will go off to indicate the timer has finished. Of course, if there’s no connection between A3 and GND nothing will happen.

Link to the tutorial video + code

https://youtu.be/AM_uG1zGLZ4

https://makecode.com/_TwPMT4Pee2C3

Conclusion
We originally had planned for a wearable that required two people to be joined together to close the circuit, but things are different at the moment. Instead, the user is able to give themselves self-love and self-compassion in the form of meditation. We hope this tutorial will inspire you and influence you in your own practice.

Related tutorials & works cited

Push_reset. (2017, October 10). How to work with conductive fabric. Retrieved from https://www.instructables.com/How-to-Work-With-Conductive-Fabric/